除了作为高性能的独立分析仪，FLXA402也是新横河电机SENCOM 4.0平台的组件。该智能传感器系统可以简化现场维护和标定工作。使用SENCOM 4.0平台，可以轻松升级到下一代智能产品，并且可以在任何时间进行升级转移，对运营几乎无影响。
For control of batch neutralization, a pH measurement coupled with a timer-controlled chemical feed scheme provides very satisfactory results.
This system can be adapted for either acid waste or alkaline waste neutralization.
There are a number of suppliers of oil and fat products used for edible purposes. These products include, but are not limited to olive oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, lard, shortening, butter, and margarine. The raw materials for these products include animal by-products, fleshy fruits (palm and olive), and oilseeds.
Industry:Food and Beverage
One of the primary applications for high purity water is for boiler feed water. The measurement of pure water pH can be one of the quickest indicators of process contamination in the production or distribution of pure water. Effective chemical treatment of the feed water is vital in maintaining the useful operating life and minimizing maintenance costs of the boiler.
Industry:Power, Pharmaceutical, Common
Problems at the wet end of a paper machine can rarely be corrected down stream. That is why monitoring and controlling pH in pulp stock is critical to the paper making process. Essentially, at every stage in the manufacture of paper, correct pH values play a vital role. Variations in the pH value at the head box have a negative effect on the quality of the paper produced.
Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.
In a batch tank, analyzers such as dissolved oxygen (DO) analyzers, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) meters, and mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) analyzers are used. To reduce the maintenance frequency, measures must be taken to prevent dirt accumulation on the sensor. As the liquid level in a tank can vary greatly, great care should be taken when selecting the sensor installation position in a tank.
The term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. Cooling towers are heat-transfer units, used to remove heat from any water-cooled system. The cooled water is then re-circulated (and thus, recycled) back into the system. Since the process water is re-circulated, the mineral concentration increases as a result of the evaporation. (AN10B01B20-01E)
Industry:Refining, Food and Beverage, Power, Oil and Gas, Pulp and Paper, Chemical
In a semiconductor plant, a variety of chemicals are used in various manufacturing processes. The chemicals used for specific purposes are produced by diluting raw liquid with demineralized water using in diluting equipment, and the control of the concentration at this point is performed by conductivity measurement.
Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid.
The treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper plants is a serious environmental concern. Yokogawa's submersion holder with an ultrasonic+air-jet cleaner (customized product) can reduce the manual cleaning frequency to just once every one or two months.
Industry:Pulp & Paper
In the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Food & Beverage industries, the cleaning and sterilization of tanks and piping are done with various cleaning solutions, fresh or hot water and steam after manufacturing products. Clean-In-Place (CIP) is the system designed for automatic cleaning and disinfecting.
Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. Problems at the wet end (stock preparation) can rarely be corrected downstream. That is why monitoring and controlling pH in pulp stock is critical to the paper making process. Essentially, at every stage in the manufacture of paper, correct pH values play a vital role.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.
Wastewater from electroplating facilities and certain types of chemical plants contains toxic forms of hexavalent chromium such as chromate and dichromate. The hexavalent chromium in this wastewater must be reduced before the water can be discharged. This requires a two-step process: hexavalent chromium (CR6) is reduced to trivalent chromium (CR3); and CR3 is precipitated as chromium hydroxide.
Industry:Electrical and Electronics
Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. The improved plant performance translates to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation.
Removal of free oil and grease from a wastewater stream reduces the potential for equipment problems to occur further downstream. There are three forms of oil encountered in wastewater treatment at a refinery.
Sour Water is the wastewater that is produced from atmospheric and vacuum crude columns at refineries. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are typical components in sour water that need to be removed before the water can be reused elsewhere in the plant. Removal of these components is done by sending the sour water from the process to a stripping tower where heat, in the form of steam, is applied.
Power plant boiler houses designed to burn coal or high sulfur oil are required by Federal and State pollution regulations to "scrub" (remove) sulfur dioxide from flue gasses to meet emission limits. SO2 in flue gasses is known to be harmful to the environment, as it is one contributor to the formation of acid rain. pH control is critical for the proper functioning of the scrubber system.
Seawater leak detection is the post-condensation water quality management processes. Damage to the ion exchange resin, which deionizes the supplied water, is also monitored during this process, and both of these applications are executed by a conductivity analyzer. (AN10D01P01-01E)
In the past, the boiler feed tank systems in sugar factories had to be checked several times a day to make sure there were no sugar solution leaks. This was a very laborious process and, as continuous monitoring was not possible, monitoring results were not reliable. When a leak occurred, recovery operations were very costly and time-consuming. (AN10D01K01-02E)
In flue gas desulfurization systems that use magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) slurry, the consumption of the desulfurization agent (Mg(OH)2) is controlled by using online pH analyzers. A great concern in the pH measurement is heavy staining of the pH electrodes by the Mg(OH)2 slurry. To ensure accurate measurement, frequent cleaning of the electrodes with an acid is required, adding to both maintenance workload and cost.
To defray energy costs, many industrial plants have their own boilers to generate steam in order to produce a portion of their energy needs. In addition to generating power, the steam may also be used directly in plant processes or indirectly via heat exchangers or steam jacketed vessels.
To technology in iron & steel industry is continuously improved to obtain the best possible performance. The improved plant performance gives rise to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation.
Most zinc are produced at hydrometallurgically, where a high-grade zinc product can be obtained and valuable metals mixed in the raw material can be recovered. In the hydrometallurgy, the raw material of zinc concentrate is roasted and then dissolved in sulfuric acid to remove impurities. The process called leaching and pH control of the leachate is important.
Fish perform all their bodily functions in water. Because fish are totally dependent upon water to breathe, feed and grow, excrete wastes, maintain a salt balance, and reproduce, understanding the physical and chemical qualities of water is critical to successful aquaculture. To a great extent water determines the success or failure of an aquaculture operation.
In stable dispersion of fine particles is the pre-requisite for the selective flocculation technique involving separation of ultra-fine valuable particles from the gangue. Among mineral processing techniques selective flocculation technique is known to have outstanding potential of capturing the particles of particular mineral in slurry of mixed mineral system by selective adsorption of water soluble polymers known as flocculants.