전도도 측정은 대부분의 산성용액 또는 염기용액의 농도를 신뢰할 수 있는 지표입니다. 원하는 화학적 농도는 2단걔 혼합 절차를 사용하여 달성합니다. 첫번째 단계에서는 누락된 탱크의 유량 제어 장치가 최대 강도 용액의 갤런/분(x), 물 갤런/분(y)의 제공하도록 설정됩니다. 이 값은 원하는 값보다 약간 약한 농도 값을 생성하도록 조정되고, 이 비율 제어에는 화학물질의 낭비 또는 위험한 상황을 방지하기 위해 원액과 물의 "저유량" 조건을 나타내는 알람 기능이 포함되어야 합니다.
두번째 단계에서는 전도도 센서와 분석계는 "트림 제어"기능을 합니다. 이 조합은 소량의 원액을 혼합탱크에 첨가하여 원하는 농도를 정확하게 생성합니다.
예를 들어, 대형 부식제 공급 장치에서 50%짜리 가성 용액을 이용하여 4%짜리 가성 용액을 생산하려면 유량 비율 콘트롤러를 3% 용액으로 조정하고 전도도 정보를 이용하여 4% 농도를 달성하기 위해 부식제를 추가합니다.
전도도는 대부분의 산성 및 염기성 용액의 농도에 대하여 매우 신뢰할 수 있는 지표입니다. 그림1은 네 가지의 일반적인 용액에 대한 전도도와 농도의 상관관계를 나타냅니다.
For most solutions, there is a peak conductivity value. Before this peak value is reached, conductivity correlates positively with concentration; after the peak, it correlates negatively. So, if the concentration range passes through the peak for that chemical the conductivity value (except the peak value) represents two different concentration values. Therefore, it is mandatory that any application near the peak of a particular solution be carefully controlled.
In determining the proper loop components for a particular application, the material of construction will be of primary concern. A chemical resistance chart should be consulted (see Table 1), or an application data sheet completed and sent to the factory in order to insure an installation that will be suited for the intended application.
There are two basic sensor styles used for measuring Conductivity: Contacting and Inductive (Toroidal, Electrodeless).
With Inductive Conductivity (also called Toroidal or Electrodeless), the sensing elements (electrode coils) of an inductive sensor do not come in direct contact with the process. These two matched (identical) coils are encapsulated in PEEK (or Teflon) protecting them from the adverse effects of the process.
There is only one cell factor (constant) for the ISC40 Inductive Sensor. It covers nearly the entire conductivity measurement range ~ 50-2,000,000 µS/cm. Only on the low end (below 50 µS) does the accuracy of the sensor suffer.
Because the ISC40 Inductive sensor is virtually maintenance free; it is the first choice for any application. If the ISC40 cannot be used then it is recommended to use the 4-electrode design, model SC42 large bore sensor.
The model ISC40 sensors are designed for use with the EXA ISC analyzers. This combination exceeds all expectations for conductivity measurement in terms of reliability, accuracy, rangeability and price performance.
The accuracy is 0.5% of reading plus 0.5 microS/cm for any conductivity value, whether measured in rinse water or in concentrated acids. The materials of construction ensure a long life under harsh industrial conditions.
The erosion/abrasion resistant PEEK (Poly Ether Ether Ketone), which also features excellent chemical resistance in all solutions except fluoric acid or oxidizing concentrated acids. The ultimate material in terms of chemical resistance is the PFA (Teflon) for applications in hydrofluoric acid and oxidizing concentrated acids (nitric, sulfuric, oleum).
The ISC40G and ISC40s are available in PEEK (sensor type GG) for general use. In applications where sample is aggressive to Peek we offer the sensor in Teflon (Sensor type TG).
The ISC40 sensor is provided with a rugged Stainless Steel mounting thread, nut and gasket combination for ultimate flexibility in installation using bulk head installation technique. There is also a wide range of holders and options available for reliable in-line or off-line installation with double O-ring seals for long service life of the sensor. Additional models are available for use in Ball-Valve Insertion applications and in Sanitary Flange installations.
Both sensors have a large bore for optimal resistance to fouling processes and when properly installed, the flow will keep the sensor clean preventing measuring errors.
All applications where the 6 decade rangeability is necessary for accurate process control
This program includes flow fittings and their subassemblies for in-line or direct mounting of conductivity sensors in piping systems. A wide choice of construction materials gives the user the best solution for any process considering chemical resistance, pressure and temperature specifications.
On-line measurements often present extra challenges, especially when routine maintenance is required. The PR10 is ideally suitable for applications where the sensors must be removed without interrupting or shutting down the process. Without any special tools the PR10 can be retracted safely from the process at pressures up to 5 bar (72 psi). The PR10 is a universal retractable assembly that can be used for all liquid measurements. The PR10 is designed to accept any commercially available pH/ORP or dissolved oxygen sensor that has a PG13.5 connection while still being backwards compatible with old Yokogawa electrodes.
For ease of use optional flush ports are available. In the retracted position the sensor can be kept moist, cleaned or even calibrated. This can all be done without process interruption or disassembly of the armature.
|238934||100 µS/cm Solution|
|238985||147 µS/cm Solution|
|238929||706 µS/cm Solution|
|238986||1413 µS/cm Solution|
|238988||12880 µS/cm Solution|
|238935||100 mS/cm Solution|
In the past, the boiler feed tank systems in sugar factories had to be checked several times a day to make sure there were no sugar solution leaks. This was a very laborious process and, as continuous monitoring was not possible, monitoring results were not reliable. When a leak occurred, recovery operations were very costly and time-consuming.
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