現場無線

為您呈現一個充滿新機遇的世界……

無需連接有線通訊回路,橫河電機的無線系統便可以實現以往難以實現或不經濟的製程測量。

  • 橫河電機提供一整套符合ISA100標準的壓力傳送器產品線,包括可測量各種製程連接的差壓傳送器、絕對壓力傳送器和表壓傳送器。

  • 橫河電機提供雙輸入YTA510溫度變送器和多點輸入YMTX580溫度變送器。

  • 帶“現場無線通訊模組FN110”的現場無線多協議模組,可作為現場無線設備與現場無線網絡連接。該產品從連接的傳感器採集傳感器數據,並通製FN110將訊息傳送至現場無線網絡。有關“現場無線通訊模組FN110”的概述和詳細訊息,請參閱相應的一般規格書(GS)。

  • 橫河電機提供IoT Enabled ISA100兼容網關、接入點、媒體轉換器和管理站。通製以上基礎設施來設計滿足用戶需求的網絡。

  • Wireless Noise Surveillance is a new digital HSE system to provide a real time sound noise map monitoring system.

2018.03.06   出版“網關模組”(FN110-R1 / LN90)手冊。
2017.11.21   出版手冊“橫河電機ISA100 Wireless™網關模組—構建小型現場無線系統的理想選擇。
2017.07.18   更新手冊“橫河電機現場無線解決方案”。
2017.03.23   橫河電機和Cosasco簽訂銷售ISA100 Wireless™產品的協議—改善維護和增強安全性 – (請參閱 Cosasco網站: http://www.cosasco.com/
2016.12.08   橫河電機發布開發出基於ISA100 Wireless標準的現場無線振動傳感器—數據更新快、電池壽命長。(參見FN510現場無線多功能模組)。
2016.09.23   橫河電機獲得SICE獎(參見2016年9月26日橫河電機新聞)。
2016.08.10   橫河電機發布通用設備管理工具FieldMate® R3.02 – 顯著降低設備維護的工作量 -
2016.08.08    2016年9月27日,橫河電機將在荷蘭鹿特丹舉行ISA100無線終端用戶會議 
2016.07.21    Murata 開始2.4 GHz寬帶無線通訊模組(已獲得ISA100無線兼容認證)的批量生產。
2016.06.17    橫河電機發布FN310和FN510 (ATEX認證)。
2016.04.22    橫河電機發布FN110、FN310和FN510 (“美國和加拿大”FM認證和IECEx認證)。
2016.03.18    橫河電機發布YFGW510現場無線接入點(ATEX和IECEx隔爆認證選項)。
2016.03.18    橫河電機發布符合新立法框架(NLF標準)的現場無線YFGW系列。
2016.02.22    橫河電機與挪威國家石油公司達成協議,共同開發現場無線系統 –實時監控工廠噪聲水平。
2016.01.05    橫河電機發布新宣傳樣本“橫河電機現場無線解決方案”(BU 01W01A13-01EN)。
2015.11.04    橫河電機發布制藥解決方案“地面井水位監測”。
2015.10.13    Murata面向市場發布ISA100無線模組工程樣本。
2015.07.28   添加兩個應用實例“鋼鐵工業中的PID回路溫度監測”和“無內胎輪胎性能測試”。
2015.07.23   橫河電機和GasSecure發布SIL2認證的LNG設施無線氣體檢測系統。
2015.07.03    橫河電機發布工廠資源管理器(PRM)R3.20,包括ISA100 Wireless&trade現場設備改進的管理功能。



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

新的理念 "Wireless Anywhere"

Wireless Anywhere”理念可擴展基於ISA100.11a標準的現場無線系統應用。

橫河電機宣布引入新的“Wireless Anywhere”業務理念,在工廠範圍內使用符合ISA100.11a標準的無線通訊技術,用於監測和控制應用。

anywhere 01_en r01.jpg

對於需要複雜無線控制技術的連續製程,橫河電機於20107月發布了符合ISA100.11a標準的系統設備和變送器,拓寬了用戶的設備選擇範圍。

基於“Grow”理念,橫河電機於2012年發布了三套新現場無線系統設備以及現有無線壓力和溫度變送器的強化版,幫助用戶擴展其工廠無線網絡,充分利用現有資產。這些符合ISA100.11a標準的無線產品既可以用於構建高度可靠的大規模工廠網絡,也可以與其他橫河電機產品在中小型網絡中配套使用,從而可以持續擴展其能力。

ISA100.11a標準能夠確保高可靠性、應用靈活性、網絡可擴展性以及與多種有線通訊標準的兼容性,如FOUNDATIONTM現場總線、HART®PROFIBUS等。“ISA100.11a全功能”現場無線網絡系統和設備採用先進的雙冗餘技術,可確保更高水平的可靠性、大規模擴展性以及遠距離通訊能力。

橫河電機將積極促進“Wireless Anywhere”新理念,擴大ISA100.11a產品和相關服務的應用。這將進一步增強現有的“Grow”理念,通製其固有的可靠性、靈活性和開放性,可以鼓勵引進無線通訊技術。

ISA100.11a全功能現場無線系統的特點

anywhere 02_en r03.jpg

該系統通製採用先進的雙冗餘技術確保實時響應,並支持多達20個接入點和500台現場無線設備的連接,規模可觀。當系統由主機系統和500台現場無線設備組成時,數據更新時間為5秒;當系統由主機系統和200台現場無線設備組成時,數據更新時間為1秒。經驗證,現場無線設備的通訊距離長達10 km*1,是傳統系統的20倍。

橫河電機的無線物理層(可靠的無線電)和系統冗餘技術可以確保高可靠性。利用橫河電機的Duocast技術,各現場設備將相同數據同步發送至兩個指定的接入點。即使其中一個接入點出現問題,也可以確保不間斷通訊。網關和系統的組合可以進一步提高無線系統的可靠性。經驗證,現場無線設備的通訊距離長達10 km*1,是傳統系統的20倍。

*1帶高增益天線。地方法規可能會限制現場無線設備使用這種天線。

Wireless Anywhere理念

通製“Grow”理念和“Wireless Anywhere”理念,橫河電機提倡工廠使用“ISA100.11a全功能”現場無線系統。為此,橫河電機將採取以下三項措施。

1.將無線組件模組化,加速產品開發
橫河電機將研發模組化的無線組件,這種組件可以在現場無線設備中配合使用各項技術。這有助於供應商在新傳感器產品中實施ISA100.11a技術,加快上市時間。2013年底,橫河電機計劃發布帶這些組件的新現場無線設備,並擴展產品系列。

2.促進ISA100.11a標準的採用
橫河電機將與ISA100無線合規性協會(ISA100WCI)的其他成員合作,增加WCI成員公司的數量,促進ISA100.11a標準被廣泛接受,從而擴展現場無線市場。為了提高ISA100.11a產品的市場占有率,橫河電機可以為其他供應商提供模組化組件。

3.促進主機的有線和無線現場網絡連接
l為了促進現場無線系統在監測和控制應用程序中的應用,通製實現有線和無線現場設備和系統與主機監測和控制系統的連接,橫河電機可以提高工廠現場數字網絡的效率。這就需要促進技術的發展,確保主機系統和現場設備可以利用各項協議互相通訊。例如,ISA100.11a適配器可以使有線現場設備與無線網絡連接。

anywhere 03_en r01.jpg

總結

橫河電機倡導的“Wireless Anywhere”新理念解決方案可以與不同設備和生產現場使用的先進訊息技術無縫配套使用。橫河電機將繼續研發用於監測和控制應用的無線設備,並與客戶進行合作,通製實現理想的工廠運行確保用戶的長期發展。

可靠的大規模新一代工廠現場無線系統

橫河電機“Grow”理念的新架構

2010年,橫河電機發布了符合ISA100.11a標準的無線現場產品,並引領了該項業務。如今,橫河電機又發布了一套新的大規模、高可靠性的新一代工廠現場無線系統。

作為現場數字解決方案的核心,橫河電機在開發該系統時主要關注以下三個重要特性。

  1. 可靠性:可靠的高性能現場無線和冗餘技術
  2. 靈活性:支持範圍廣的靈活結構,適用於各種規模的工廠
  3. 開放性:開放的ISA100.11a標準,可連接第三方現場無線設備

該套新系統符合橫河電機的“Grow”理念,在幫助客戶成長的同時,也使橫河電機得以發展,繼續為用戶提供及時的解決方

Grow_00_80E.jpg

新一代現場無線系統的優勢

現在大部分現場無線系統安裝在相對較小的區域中,但是以下需求不斷增加:增加監控點的數量、覆蓋更廣的區域、擴展至製程控制以及診斷、監控和測量。為滿足這些需求,橫河電機開發了大規模、高可靠性的新一代工廠現場無線系統,可以管理多達500*台無線現場設備。
*根據YFGW410的軟件版本可以處理的無線現場設備的數量。.

傳統的小型現場無線系統主要作為附加的監控工具安裝在易於查看的場所,如罐區和污水處理設施。這種系統有以下優勢:改進庫存管理、減少定期檢查、自動化環境測量以及降低布線成本。

相比之下,工廠無線系統既可以在難以安裝無線設備以及安裝有大量生產設備的小區域中設定大量的測量點,又可以覆蓋整個工廠。這就可以使客戶在工廠的任何位定安裝無線設備,並通製這些設備管理數據,以提高工廠的生產效率。

大規模、靈活的現場無線系統的結構

橫河電機為新的現場無線系統研發了以下新產品:

  • YFGW410現場無線管理站
  • YFGW510現場無線接入點
  • YFGW610現場無線媒體轉換器

YFGW710是現有的現場無線集成網關,將所有接入點和無線管理功能集為一體,從而可以輕鬆安裝小型無線系統。在該新結構中,YFGW510用作接入點,與YFGW410現場無線管理站構成無線主干網絡。
在該新結構中,YFGW510用作接入點,與YFGW410現場無線管理站構成無線主干網絡。
因此,通製在整個工廠安裝多個YFGW510現場無線接入點,可以構建無線子網絡並互相連接,從而創建大規模的工廠現場無線系統。
YFGW510YFGW410可以通製以太網、光纖以太網、無線LAN、儀表電纜通訊*等進行通訊,因而可以在工廠中靈活安裝。
*儀表電纜通訊可在下一個階段進行。
系統配定的示例如下所示。

System_01_65E.jpg

支持高可靠性現場無線系統的技術

橫河電機現場無線的接收效率很高,其特點是無線物理層(可靠的無線電)具有高可靠性。該技術可以在無障礙的情況下進行長達600米的長距離通訊,並且在“障礙物密集環境”的多路徑環境中實現低數據包錯誤率。.

通製引進新技術提高網絡層的可靠性。橫河電機致力於以下兩項技術。

1. Duocast

DuocastISA100.11a標準中指定的無線路徑冗餘技術。在傳統的網狀拓撲結構網絡中,如果未在其中一個路徑中建立通訊,數據將經由另一個路徑進行發送。但是,這樣可能會影響實時性能,因為即使在同一超幀中數據也不會在同一時隙中發送,而是在之後的時隙中發送。

另一方面,Duocast在同一時隙中同步發送兩項相同數據,隻要其中一個數據發送成功,即可保持實時性能。因此,Duocast可以確保關鍵任務無線路徑的冗餘,在確保低延遲的同時,還有助於提高可靠性(請參閱下圖)

Duocast_00_80E.jpg

Duocast可以克服任一接入點的故障以及無線路徑中的偏差。

2. 雙無線主干網絡

YFGW510YFGW410之間的網絡為無線主干網絡。為提高網絡的可靠性,其冗餘由ISA100.11a標準指定,通製冗餘YFGW410站獲得。雙YFGW410站的其中一個站可以在無線主干網絡斷開或異常時或其他YFGW410故障時運行(請參閱下圖)

Redundant_00_65E R01.jpg

兩個站通製同步通訊電纜互相連接,其中一個站設定為運行,另一個站設定為待機。如果檢測到設定為運行的YFGW410中存在故障,其功能和數據將快速切換至設定為待機的YFGW410中,以進行無縫持續通訊。.

增強版無線變送器

隨著工廠現場無線系統發布,無線差壓/壓力變送器和無線溫度變送器的性能增強。

通訊質量改善,帶可拆卸天線

橫河電機已經發布了天線可拆卸式機型。天線延長電纜和高增益天線*可用於該機型。可以使用天線延長電纜來調整天線的放定,而無需更改變送器的安裝

使用高增益天線*可以延長通訊距離。

*符合各國的無線電法律法規


功耗低,可延長電池壽命

天線可拆卸式機型的功耗低,電池壽命比傳統產品長。根據情況,電池壽命可延長1.52倍。電池壽命的示例如下所示。

EJX B系列無線差壓/壓力變送器(放大器外殼代碼89)
 更新時間為30秒時,壽命為10
 更新時間為10秒時,壽命為5

YTA510無線溫度變送器(放大器外殼代碼89,低功耗模式)
 更新時間為10秒時,壽命為10
 更新時間為5秒時,壽命為8

總結

橫河電機研發工業無線技術長達十年,通製比較各種標準得出了以下結論:在工業測量和控制領域採用無線系統時,無線物理層必須儘可能地消除不穩定性(可靠的無線電),並且系統應將其進一步強化。

在各工業無線通訊標準中,ISA100標準最適合實現橫河電機的策略。因此,橫河電機採用了該標準,並於2010年面向市場發布了ISA100產品。

通製研發工程師對全球100多個站點進行調查,橫河電機發布了多種無線應用程序。

這種經驗積累以及從眾多用戶獲取的訊息在充分利用ISA100標準(ISA100全功能)優勢的發展製程中體現出來,使無線通訊在現場數字化創新製程中的作用更加明確、更加安全。.

ISA100_Full_Functional_02_50E.jpg

無線通訊的可靠性

大多數人認為無線通訊容易斷開,這似乎要歸咎於人們對移動電話和無線局域網的日常使用經驗。移動電話技術的快速發展意味著最新數字無線通訊技術可以用來應對這個非常嚴峻的挑戰。即使用戶正在步行或處在高速移動的汽車或火車上,也可以保持高速數據傳輸速率和可靠性。.
然而,事實是用戶的移動速度不確定,使用位定不固定,從而導致無線電波環境動態變化,增加了無線通訊的困難程度,使得無線通訊的典型特點即是不穩定。
同時,在許多工業測量應用中,經製勘察,測量位定一般固定在安裝點。這樣,即使用戶移動,移動速度非常緩慢且移動範圍有限,所需數據傳輸速率也比較低,因此易於達到無線通訊所需的環境可靠性。換言之,可以提前設定確保無線通訊的穩定環境。

在這樣一個相對優越的環境中引進最新數字無線技術,可以保證不遜色於有線通訊的穩定性。

實現數字通訊技術的安全性

即使是固定的無線通訊,也存在一些問題,例如其他無線通訊的干擾和串擾,以及惡意使用相同頻率的干擾。
此外,無線通訊訊號需要穿製空氣到達周邊地區,因此也會產生一些問題,例如第三方的攔截和竊聽或從外部故意入侵無線網絡。
這些問題的解決方法之一是無線通訊的模擬到數字技術的進化。
模擬時代的無線通訊,在安全方面比較容易受到攻擊,因為它可以被任何使用相同頻率的接收器攔截,故意中斷和干擾也非常容易。
然而,無線通訊中數字技術的引入顯著減少了上述問題。下面是對數字技術的概述。

Security by digital communication technology

環境條件和無線通訊

人們擔心無線通訊可能會受環境影響,實際上這些擔心存在一些誤解。
例如,現場無線通訊容易受到強磁場的危害,降雨會導致通訊中斷等。在某些情況下,無線通訊比有線通訊更有優勢。下面總結了環境條件和無線通訊之間的關系。

  • 雷擊電湧帶來的損害
    雷擊電湧是一種現象,即雷電流製電源電纜和通訊電纜產生浪湧電流,從而導致連接的電子設備受損。由於無線變送器間不通製電纜連接,所以其雷擊電湧風險非常小。然而,為防止受到直接雷擊,需要有現場防雷措施。
  • 雷擊產生的通訊干擾
    據說雷擊放電產生的電磁波頻率範圍非常廣,從幾個Hz1 GHz。然而,頻率越高其功率越低,僅當放電和間歇通訊碰巧同時發生時才會出現該問題。即使同時發生,也可以通製重新傳送控制恢複。
  • 雨、雪和霧的影響
    現場無線通訊使用的2.4 GHz幾乎不受雨雪影響。這已經經製實驗證明。一般情況下,10 GHz或以上的頻率時通訊開始受影響。
  • 通訊斷線的風險
    無線通訊不受典型有線通訊電纜斷線問題的影響,即電纜因災害損壞、在惡劣環境下老化、被野生動物損壞或被人惡意切斷等情況下會發生的斷線問題。
  • 強磁場的影響
    導致問題的磁場通常不是在無線通訊的高頻範圍內,而是處於低頻範圍。無線通訊在這方面更有優勢,因為磁場產生的感應電流是與導體(導線)相關的。

獨特的電池組技術

橫河電機獨特的電池組技術可以高效完成電池更換。

Battery pack

無線變送器中採用獨特設計的電池外殼組件和電池組,即使在危險區域的現場也可以進行更換。電池組還可以便捷訪問內部電池,以便根據需要進行更換和重新儲備。這樣可以最小化廢物和成本,同時使電池更換製程儘可能高效。電池組內使用的電池為標準“D”單元鋰-亞硫酰氯電池。它們不僅具有出色的電能-溫度特性,而且壽命周期長,可以在各種環境中使用。

數字世界中的ISA100DPharp

通製空氣數字傳感,兩項獨特技術的結合可以實現真正的終端到終端。將DPharp數字傳感和ISA100.11a(無線傳感器網絡的新工業標準)的公認優點結合,帶來了真正獨特的主張。先進的高精度數字傳感具有無線配定的所有優點,由於其擴展無線傳感器網絡的靈活性,減少了工程和調試工作,從而可以滿足未來的需求。

DPharpISA100.11a結合,表明橫河電機為工業自動化行業持續提供卓越而前沿的解決方案的決心。可靠、安全、靈活且直觀的新型無線傳感器系列簡化了無線配定、管理和操作的各個方面,同時實現了更高的標準。

無論是遠程安裝在上游的管道和井口裝定,或下游的油罐區,或是減壓蒸餾裝定,還是裝載碼頭,橫河電機的無線變送器都將持續提供安全、精確、可靠、高度完整的製程測量,以滿足客戶的需求。

橫河電機的無線變送器將通製減少操作盲點從而增加製程可視性,減少製程波動,增加產量,提高產品的可重複性同時降低成本並增加靈活性。

ISA100將帶來真正可持續的生命周期效益,滿足您現在以及將來的各種需求。

ISA100.11a無線通訊標準

無線技術例如移動電話和無線網絡已經成為我們生活中不可或缺的一部分。現在,對無線技術與儀器儀表的兼容性有更大的需求。所以,什麼是無線技術的最佳應用呢?

包括橫河電機在內的各供應商已經提供無線通訊的簡易應用,但無線通訊還未被廣泛接受,原因如下:

  • 大部分使用專有通訊協議,從而限制了潛在應用。
  • 不能使用一套無線儀器儀表處理多個品牌的產品。
  • 工程師無法忽視對通訊通道安全性和可靠性的擔心。

但是現在,橫河電機採用了針對工業自動化的ISA100.11a無線通訊標準,並努力制作符合國際標準的用戶友好無線設備。

ISA100.11a具有以下非同尋常的特性:

特點 說明
安全性 大的加密技術
高可靠性 實現36524小時無停車通訊
電源管理 更長的電池壽命及預測電池更換周期
開放 設備可以從多家供應商處購買
多級變速 設備具有高速和低速更新周期
多功能 一個無線網絡上有多個應用
擴展性 無線現場設備的數量、更長距離的通訊和更新周期
全球性 許多國家支持的技術
通訊品質管理 延遲控制和低錯誤率
多協議 由於可以與現有有線系統整合,因此隻需要極少的投資
控制支持 擴展無線應用的範圍

這些都是基於用戶對工業無線傳感器網絡的需求;ISA100.11a工業無線標準一次滿足所有這些需求。

通製引入基於ISA100.11A標準的工業無線技術,我們能建立高可靠性、有前途的新型儀器儀表,這可以解決很多問題。

使用ISA100無線技術控制應用的演示

為順利整合使用單一無線基礎設施的工廠監測和控制應用鋪平了道路

seigyodemo_en_01.jpg

為本演示設計的系統是由Flowserve(福斯)公司的標準無線D3閥門定位器和橫河電機的旗艦型綜合生產控制系統“CENTUM® VP”、無線網關設備和DPharp EJX B系列無線差壓/壓力變送器組成的。現場無線設備全部符合WCI (ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute)的ISA100 Wireless™,其特點是數據更新周期隻有1秒鐘,可以快速更新數據。利用冗餘無線通訊路徑可以確保高可靠性。

本次演示系統中橫河電機的產品:

  • CENTUM VP綜合生產控制系統
  • DPharp EJX B系列差壓/壓力變送器
  • YEGW410現場無線管理站
  • YFGW510現場無線接入點

seigyodemo_en_02.jpg

無線水位控制演示的特點

  1. 通製DCS的PID控制進行現場無線設備的控制
  2. 最快數據更新周期:1秒
  3. 現代化的冗餘技術Duocast和冗餘現場無線管理站YFGW410
  4. Flowserve(福斯)公司的無線D3閥門定位器標準產品

seigyodemo_en_03.jpg

無線水位控制演示的詳細訊息

目的:橫河電機確保無線控制每秒更新1次。
方法:分布式控制器與無線閥門定位器和無線差壓/壓力變送器通訊,並將水位控制為四級。
構成:“CENTUM VP”分布式控制系統與ISA100.11a無線系統的基礎設施通訊,並通製PID控制進行水位控制。

橫河電機開發用於控制應用的可靠ISA100無線系統——現場演示

利用ISA100無線技術,可以順利整合單一無線基礎設施下的工廠無線監測和控制應用。橫河電機正致力於研發適用於監測和控制整個工廠的無線技術應用。橫河電機的演示表明在無線控制應用中的實際工廠條件下首次使用CENTUM VP的方法。

無線傳感器網絡中使用橫河電機的ISA100.a設備在,可增加通訊距離並節約成本

您是否為獲得適當覆蓋範圍而在無線傳感器網絡中增加額外的中繼器和設備而煩惱?那麼,請切換到橫河電機的ISA100.11a無線系統,使用更少的硬件覆蓋更大的區域,從而節省資金。使用橫河的遠程天線可選項,橫河電機的接入點和無線變送器可以在設備間可靠傳輸3.4 km。這意味著在一個標準的4hops網絡中,橫河電機的無線系統能夠覆蓋半徑13.6 km的區域。

選擇適合您的小型/大型應用的可靠無線系統

可靠的無線解決方案始終是行業用戶最關注的問題之一。本視頻演示橫河電機新發布的無線系統解決方案。它結合了ISA100.11a無線技術和橫河電機系統設計的專業知識。橫河電機的新無線系統進一步加強了現場設備中的“可靠的無線電”,在接入點(YFGW510)中配定Duocast通訊方法,啟用2台可以同時工作以實現整個無線系統可靠性的冗餘管理站(YFGW410)。由於這個獨特的設計,一個單獨的橫河電機無線系統可以非常靈活應對您的需求,可靠支持多達500個現場設備。請觀看本演示。

橫河電機無線引入“可靠的無線電進化”

橫河電機無線解決方案具有非常可靠的無線鏈路功能,接收器具有理想的靈敏度。我們發現該功能可以為客戶帶來客觀的新效益。

  • 長距離通訊:(10 mW時最長600 m)
  • 障礙物密集環境中穩定
  • Wi-Fi的高度共存

橫河電機現場無線:長距離通訊實驗 (600m)

橫河電機的工程師測試了橫河電機無線解決方案中的“長距離通訊”功能。視頻中顯示600米通訊的數據包錯誤率(PER)非常低。
我們將這個顯著變化命名為“可靠的無線電進化”,並準備宣傳該理念,為客戶獲得更大利益。本視頻為“可靠的無線電進化”的概念視頻。

橫河電機獲得2014年弗若斯特沙利文無線解決方案領域的全球技術先驅獎

橫河電機宣布已獲得2014年弗若斯特沙利文無線解決方案領域的全球技術先驅獎。技術先驅獎代表該公司在某個領域處於世界領先地位。
利用現場無線系統,工廠的現場設備和主機級别監測及控制系統間可以進行無線通訊。這有許多優勢。例如在難以接線的位定可以放定現場設備或分析傳感器,消除了用電纜連接設備的需求,降低了安裝成本。
20107月,橫河電機發布ISA100.11a兼容無線系統設備、無線壓力和溫度變送器,並且繼續完善其無線解決方案產品線。根據20134月提出的“Wireless Anywhere”理念,橫河電機正在謀求通製研發新的ISA100 Wireless&trade設備推廣現場無線系統的廠際應用。201312月,橫河電機開始提供帶內定天線的無線通訊模組,幫助現場設備制造商大幅縮短研發無線解決方案的時間。今年下半年,橫河電機也計劃發布一款多協議無線適配器,這使有線現場設備或分析傳感器能夠作為ISA100無線設備使用。
弗若斯特沙利文授予橫河電機該獎,是因為橫河電機致力於研發ISA100無線解決方案,而該方案能夠保證高可靠性、開放性和互用性。選擇獲獎單位時,弗若斯特沙利文根據是否有開發新產品的創新能力,是否能夠完善現有產品、開發新的應用,是否有被市場接受的潛力,是否能夠廣泛引進科學技術等幾個方面來評估公司。橫河電機被認為在研發創新的現場無線解決方案領域做出了卓越貢獻。
根據“Wireless Anywhere”理念,橫河電機將繼續擴大其ISA100無線解決方案的產品線,推進現場無線技術的應用。橫河電機正致力於開發可以適用於監測和控制整個工廠的無線技術應用。
本手冊中出現的公司名稱、產品名稱和商標均為其各自所有者的注冊商標或商標

 

摘要:

The client wanted to monitor the pressure of the gas well at offshore platform remotely to reduce maintenance cost and increase safety of maintenance personnel.

摘要:

Remote leak detection for pipe line was needed to meet new environmental statute. However cabling earthwork is strictly restricted to protect land environment.

摘要:

The client wanted to monitor the injection gas pressure of gas lift remotely in central control room. Antitheft measures are needed to install new equipments and cables.

摘要:

In the event of a gas line shut down, gas supply must be maintained for a period of time with the use of LNG stored in road tankers. Each tanker must have its pressure monitored to prevent an over pressure situation arising.

摘要:

ISA100 wireless pressure transmitters

摘要:

ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters.

摘要:

Delayed Coker is a type of coker who's process consists of heating residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a furnace. The most important variable in industrial furnace control is temperature. Temperature is measured throughout the furnace in different zones and temperature effects the materials being manufactured and therefore must be precisely monitored to prevent deviations in quality of the final product.

摘要:

The client wanted to monitor the temperature on a chimney. Exhaust air is exposed to the heat on the way traveling from the inlet to the outlet in the chimney. Then constituent of the air transform to harmless elements. It is important to keep the temperature in the chimney as designed.

摘要:

A battery room is used to storage batteries for emergency power management in the plant. Each substation has battery room and the storage batteries are lead-acid batteries which must be maintained within specified operating temperature limits. Temperature management is important to ensure a long service life of the batteries especially for the plant in desert climates.

摘要:

Challenges

  • The distance is not so long, but there are many pipes and tanks ("Pipe Jungle") in the field.
  • Had to avoid the obstacles and take care multi path condition.  

Solution

Repeater is installed on high place between control room and monitor position. The extend cable is used for antenna of Gateway.

  • Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x1, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x2
摘要:

Geothermal power plants create electricity from geothermal energy. These power plants are similar to other steam turbine station; however their heat source is that of the earth's core. The created steam is used to turn the turbine for the production of electricity. Technologies include Dry steam, Flash steam and Binary cycle power stations with Binary cycle being the most common geothermal plant in current production. In the process of geothermal power generation the facility needs to monitor various processes, as in this case steam line pressure sits in remote from control room's location.

產業別:
摘要:

Employ the ISA100.11a-compliant YTMX580 Multipoint Wireless Transmitter. The YTMX580 has 8 channels of universal input, which is perfect for multipoint measurement applications, and it can withstand harsh operating temperatures of -40 to 85 °C.

產業別:
摘要:
  • Wireless temperature measurement gateway x1, transmitter (YTA) x1: on a buoy
  • High quality wireless communication was confirmed.
    Note: as the PER may increase due to antenna direction changes on the buoy, a repeater on the buoy is recommended
產業別:
摘要:

Pressure measurement of tubeless tyres to monitor the air loss is one of the key performance tests in the tyre manufacturing units. Relocation of tyres from one testing rack to the other for various tests and frequent movement of the testing setup for conditional tests to various locations calls for cable free implementation for ease of handling.

產業別:
摘要:

A horizontal rotary miller used to grind the limestone rocks with metallic balls as grinding stones. This is used as the raw ingredient to produce cement powder. The temperature needs to be monitored in order to control the process and the quality of the final product. The user was using an induction temperature measurement based on a rail system that was very fragile and therefore unreliable.

產業別:
摘要:

Both bulk and finished inventories are stored in distributed tank farm remote from the site operations. These are difficult to instrument due to the infrastructure cost involved. These are then monitored daily by patrol rounds. While effective, this method does require a large skilled labor force to monitor all of tanks. This can impose an additional risk when the stored medium is of a hazardous nature.

摘要:
  • Temperature monitoring is required to prevent wind-fueled fire hazards.
  • The measuring points are up to 600 meters away from the control room.
摘要:
  • Daily manual reading of pressure and temperature gauges with report by phone.
  • The customer wants to change measurement from off-line to on-line.
  • Cabling for wired transmitters in huge plants (up to 300 meters long) is expensive.
摘要:

Install a YTMX580 on the side of the rotating furnace that can wirelessly transmit measured values from multiple temperature sensors.

摘要:
  • Temperature is monitored to maintain consistency of the viscous fiber entering the drum.
  • Existing system requires manual temperature readings.
  • Wired temperature measurement is not available because the tank is rotating.
摘要:
  • Manual temperature reading requires walking about 130 m and climbing up and down elevated sections of the dryer stages.
  • Multiple temperature measurement points along the various stages of the dryer require many cables to the control room.
  • Very high humidity.
產業別:
摘要:
  • Wireless temperature measurement
    Gateway x1, transmitter (YTA) x1, repeater x2 (The 2 repeaters are for redundancy)
  • Extended antenna to circumvent obstacles and improve the radio path for stable measurement (communication was unstable when the height of the antenna was low).
摘要:
  • Wireless pressure and temperature monitoring.
  • Repeater was set under the gateway.
  • The maximum distance between the repeater and transmitters is approximately 500m.
產業別:
摘要:

ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters with orifice plates allow:

  • No cabling installations or maintenance.
  • Small amount of hardware and simple equipment implementation means minimizing potential vandalism.
摘要:

ISA100 Wireless Monitoring  

  • Gateway x1, Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x3, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x1, Repeater x1

Gateway is installed at control room and 3m height extended antenna is set.

摘要:
  • Temperature Transmitter (YTA) and Pressure Transmitter (EJX) are installed at each monitoring point.
  • Repeater is installed on high position.
摘要:

 Ground water well level monitoring is needed.

產業別:
摘要:

Blending plays a key role in industries such as food, healthcare and chemicals etc. Temperature and vacuum measurements are very important in minimizing the moisture content to ensure the quality of the final product. Strictly maintaining them throughout the process ensures the final product yield.

產業別:
摘要:

Temperature plays a key role in storage of Molasses to maintain the chemical properties of molasses. When temperature rises over 40.5 degree C, destruction of structure in sugar occurs, which results in losing the feeding property of molasses. There is also a safety concern that a rise in temperature can lead to a rise in storage tank pressure leading to an explosion of the tank.

產業別:
摘要:
  • Temperature monitoring at a tank farm
  • Temperature and pressure monitoring in tank jungles, three vertical monitoring points.
產業別:
摘要:

ISA100 Field Wireless transmitters

產業別:
摘要:

Direct Reduction Iron (DRI) is one of the processes to reduce oxygen from iron oxide pellets for steel plant. More than 90% of DRI processes use heated LNG as process gas where PID control for temperature or interlock control is of vital importance.

產業別:
摘要:

Customer needed efficiency improvement of steel manufacturing by temperature monitoring for heat/cooling equipment. Previous system required periodic compensation lead changing.

產業別:
摘要:

An induction furnace melts metal by creating very large currents in the material. These currents are induced using three electrodes positioned inside the furnace. The furnace is automated so that once the material has been melted, the electrodes are removed and the furnace then tips the molten metal into a crucible where it can be easily transferred to the production line where it will be cast into ingots. The atmosphere is extremely aggressive and the wired infrastructure is both expensive and very unreliable to maintain. The furnace control requires a total of 20 measurement points distributed around and inside the furnace. The harmonic field effects caused by short circuit 40,000 A (300V). The causes significant interference.

產業別:
摘要:
  • Wireless temperature measurement 
    gateway x1, transmitter (YTA) x1
    repeater x1: between gateway and YTA.
  • High quality wireless communication was confirmed.
    With repeater at center: The packet error rate was 0%.
產業別:
摘要:
  • Oil level measurement of diesel tanks that feed fuel to their diesel generator's which are at three locations and 400 meters apart from each other.
  • Also to measure level , pressure and flow to and from their main storage yard.
產業別:
摘要:

ISA100 Wireless Temperature and Pressure Transmitters

  • Gateway x1, Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x1, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x1

High quality wireless communication confirmed

  • Packet Error Rate (PER) is 0 to 2.5%/ 5 days
產業別:
摘要:

Caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, produced in electrolyzer plants, are fundamental materials used in varieties of industries; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petrol-chemicals, pulp and papers, etc. Profit is the result of the effective production with minimized running / maintenance cost. Proper control of the process brings you stabilized quality of products with the vast operational profit.

摘要:

Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. The improved plant performance translates to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation.

產業別:
摘要:

One important risk to manage with regard to coal stacks is preventing fires due to spontaneous combustion.

產業別:
摘要:

The use of wireless technology in industrial automation systems offers a number of potential benefits, from the obvious cost reduction brought about by the elimination of wiring to the availability of better plant information, improved productivity and better asset management. However, its practical implementation faces a number of challenges: not least the present lack of a universally agreed standard. This article looks at some of these challenges and presents the approach being taken by Yokogawa.

摘要:

Standards provide many benefits to the automation end user. Standards promote choice, interoperability, transparency and ensure that things work as they should (at least insofar as the standard is defined). The influx of wireless technology into the world of process automation has brought forth its own standard—ISA100—a major standards initiative managed by the International Society of Automation (ISA).

摘要:

When distributed control systems (DCS) first appeared on the industrial automation scene in the mid-1970s, the focus was on control and operator interface. While control and human machine interface (HMI) are still important, today's DCSs have evolved to place increased emphasis on integrating plant-wide asset and operational information to enable operational excellence. 

產業別:
摘要:

Wireless trends: Choosing a wireless network requires evaluation of communication protocols, device availability, and present future user needs.

摘要:

Temperature control of exhaust gasses coming off various combustion processes in refineries and related facilities is often critical to effective pollution abatement and compliance with applicable regulations. There are specific temperature windows where toxic gasses can form or other substances can condense, causing corrosion and other harmful effects, so operators need to make sure the process is running at the correct levels.

Stacks, chimneys and other gas handling equipment can take all sorts of forms depending on the application. Some may include scrubbers, gas cooling, chemical injection, afterburners or ambient air mixing—but a common element is the need for effective temperature measurement of the gas at various points in chimneys (Figure 1).

Given the length and height of a chimney, its associated ductwork and ancillary systems—there can be dozens of sensors inserted at strategic points from one end to the other—providing the process automation system and the plant operators with critical temperature data. These sensors are often in hard-to-reach locations where installation and maintenance are difficult. While these sensors are often spread over a great distance, they must connect back to one central point where the larger gas treatment system is controlled.

Figure 1. Chimneys found in refineries and other hydrocarbon processing facilities often require temperature monitoring.

Monitoring a Refinery Main Chimney

At a refinery in the Americas, the main chimney is located 300 m away from the main control room, and there are about 30 temperature sensors mounted on the structure, the highest of which are 30 m above the ground. Wiring for such an installation was going to very challenging, so the company instead installed an ISA100 wireless network.

When the refinery was designing the system initially, it was clear the cost of individual wireless transmitters for each temperature sensor would be expensive and take too long to install. To alleviate these issues, the refinery selected Yokogawa YTMX580 Multi-Input Temperature Transmitters, each of which can accept up to eight individual sensors and send the data back via a single wireless transmitter (Figure 2). Each unit can accommodate a variety of RTD and thermocouple types to meet application demands.

This approach minimizes the amount of required wiring while also cutting the cost of the wireless infrastructure. Four of these multi-input transmitters are installed at the facility to service the group of temperature sensors, eliminating the need to add cabling to the control room. The plant’s wireless network backhaul infrastructure brings data from the chimney to the operators so they can monitor system performance in real time.

The success of this installation has given the plant the confidence to extend the ISA100 wireless network using Yokogawa’s Plantwide Field Wireless infrastructure.

Figure 2. Wiring temperature sensors installed in a chimney back to a control room can be challenging and expensive, so many plants and facilities are instead implementing wireless solutions, such as this Yokogawa YTMX580 8-input temperature transmitter.

 

產業別:
摘要:

The greatest advantage of native wireless field instrument and actuator devices is their lack of cables for data transmission or power. Eliminating these tethers also eliminates their associated costs in time and money for installation and ongoing maintenance. Companies have adopted the ISA100 wireless standard for a variety of reasons, but the most critical is its ability to support reliable communication in process manufacturing environments. ISA100.11a (IEC 62734) was designed through cooperation among device and system vendors working with process automation end users to create a platform able to satisfy all involved. Figure 1 illustrates a typical device-level network topology using ISA100.11a wireless instruments.

Figure 1. The ISA100.11a network exists at the device level, supporting communications between field instruments and actuators.

Wireless field devices provide many possibilities for operational cost reductions along with improved performance and facility management. But in many existing plants, most field devices are already installed on wired networks, which often are not capable of providing all the information available from HART-compliant smart devices. Wireless can be used with new devices, but it can also extend the communication capabilities of existing instrumentation, realizing their diagnostic and other extended capabilities.

The User Case for Wireless Adapters

Unless there is something seriously wrong with existing wired networks, no end user is going to rip out and replace working wired devices in a process plant. However, when new devices are added, the plant may decide not to extend the wired networks. New field instruments and actuators may be available as self-contained wireless devices, or they may only be made in a conventional wired version. Those of the latter category will need to be configured to communicate with a wireless network by adding a wireless adapter.

A wireless adapter can function in two modes. First, it can add complete wireless communication capability to a conventional wired instrument. All the data from the device can be sent via the wireless network without the need for any data cables.

Second, it can extend the communication capability of an existing wired device. Many wired device-level networks are not capable of communicating any information beyond the most basic analog signal representing the measured process variable. Smart devices installed on such a network cannot send the additional information they generate, stranding it at the source. Adding a wireless adapter allows it to send the additional information using the wireless network, while continuing to use the wired network for the transmission of the process variable.

When an adapter is added to a conventional wired device, there are multiple powering options. The adapter can be outfitted with its own internal power supply and function independently. If the instrument needs power, the adapter can support it, eliminating the need for power cables.

Features of the Wireless Adapter

The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module is designed to work with HART-compliant field devices and provides a range of basic communication and operational functions:

  • Converts HART data into a format suitable to send via an ISA100.11a network,
  • Sends HART commands for configuration and troubleshooting,
  • Provides its own internal power for data transmission, and
  • Provides power for a device needing an external source.

Figure 2 shows an example of how to use the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module with HART-compliant devices. This adapter has all the necessary ISA100 communication functions built in and only requires connection to the field device.

Figure 2. The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be connected to a HART-compliant device. The module mounts separately, allowing it to be positioned for most effective wireless propagation regardless of where teh instrument is located.

Typical Wireless Adapter Applications

There are many ways in which the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be used in a process plant, but most applications fall into one of these categories:

Realizing full functionality of existing devices while saving on cabling costs, installation hassles, and future maintenance.

Most plants have large numbers of HART-compliant devices installed to monitor and control all manner of process variables (Figure 3). Most of these are connected via wired device-level networks. The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module converts these into ISA100.11a-compliant wireless devices without any modifications. If a plant or process unit requires renovation, the plant can decide to repair and maintain the wired network, or simply eliminate parts of it. If it costs $100 per meter of cable installation in explosion-proof zones, replacing just 100 meters of cabling with wireless means saving $10,000 in site work. In the case of a major plant upgrade, where sensing points are being removed or where aging cables must be replaced, wireless adapters allow the use of existing HART-compliant devices without cable reinstallation and maintenance.

Figure 3. Any HART-compliant field device can be mated with the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module.

Extending wireless communication to conventional devices.

Companies embracing wireless field devices and networks may be constrained by the limited selection of native wireless devices available today. While the range of choices is growing, some types of devices, particularly those with high power consumption, are only available in conventional wired configurations. In such cases, the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can convert any wired HART-compliant instrument or actuator from any vendor to wireless.

Gathering and sharing data from smart devices. 

While the process variables from HART-compliant devices in an existing plant are sent to the plant’s automation system through the field device network, other information, such as device condition information and other diagnostic capabilities, can be of great value to the maintenance department. It can collect and manage such data, and use it when analyzing maintenance schedules, maintenance records, repair parts usage, and so on. If the existing wired field-device network cannot extract that information and collect it for sharing interdepartmentally, those gains cannot be realized. Upgrading the network can be a complex and costly undertaking, but the information can be sent via the wireless adapter. Adding a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module allows maintenance department to capture HART commands and diagnostic information from the 4-20 mA line with little change to the installation. The adapter can work with two-wire and four-wire device types. In case of four-wire devices, an external power source can be connected to the device, making it easy to support devices with high power usage.

Deploy HART-compliant devices in remote areas where no data or power cables are available.

The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can extend power to an external device, which makes it simpler to deploy HART-compliant devices in locations where wired field-device networks don’t reach and where no power may be available. Under favorable conditions, the adapter can cover a distance up to 500 m in any direction, and more than 1 km if routers are used. For example, combining a HART-level instrument with a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module provides a means to measure the water level of rivers and reservoirs (Figure 4). And since the adapter weighs less than 1 kg including its batteries, it and its connected HART-compliant device can be moved easily, enabling flexible measurement point changes.

Extend wireless network range by acting as a router.

In situations where distances between wireless field devices are very long or where large metallic structures create barriers to effective wireless signal propagation, a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be used as a router to relay communication to and from other wireless field devices (Figure 4). Another ISA100.11a native wireless instrument can serve the same function, however in many situations it may be easier to use an adapter as a dedicated router since it is light and compact. It can also be located strategically to fill out the network most effectively.

Figure 4. The geographical coverage of a network can be extended by adding routers to relay signals and reinforce weak sections of the mesh. Routers can be located wherever they can do the most for the network, separate of any specific instrument.

Conclusion

The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module is designed to convert existing wired HART-compliant instruments and valve actuators into wireless devices. It provides flexibility to add new devices in existing plants using wireless field-device data networks, reducing cabling installation and maintenance costs. It also expands the types of wireless sensors available and simplifies device installations. Many plant operators find the wireless adapter to be a useful device able to help existing plants enjoy the benefit of wireless sensing.

摘要:

One of the first steps when creating a new wireless instrumentation network using ISA-100 wireless, or any other industrial wireless network, is a site survey. This step is not part of any wireless standard, nor is it likely part of any network management platform, so it requires some creativity. Radio propagation patterns can be difficult to predict, but following a few basic design guidelines ensures a much higher level of success.

Some wireless consultants make the process very complex using simulations and reading test signals, but these often do not ultimately match the real world. Other approaches are simpler and involve taking a few distance measurements and establishing sight lines, which often works just as well. For this article, we will concentrate more on the latter, simpler approach.

ANSI/ISA-100.11a-2011 (IEC 62734), Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications, networks are designed to support wireless field instrumentation. This protocol specification is part of the larger ISA-100 wireless series. Although network management platforms have an extraordinary capability for self-organization, this feature cannot overcome unreliable radio links.

But, the network management platform can use its diagnostic capabilities to measure the health of the communication and the devices. It can identify unreliable links so they can be fixed, and with improved communication, the network manager can reestablish a reliable link.

How Signals Propagate

Although it is not a perfect model, thinking of radio in the same way as visible light is accurate much of the time. Wireless networks depend largely on line of sight (LOS). If a wireless flow meter is trying to transmit to a gateway in its LOS, the likelihood of a good link is very high. More potential obstructions are transparent to radio frequencies than visible light, but this is affected by frequency. A leafy tree is transparent to signals at 90 MHz, but 2.4-GHz signals will suffer some attenuation.

Metallic objects are the great enemy of radio propagation, but can also help under the right conditions, which is why refineries and chemical plants provide many challenges for wireless networks. In one case, a steel-shell storage tank can be helpful by reflecting a signal, while other times it is as an obstacle. Like visible light, much depends on the surface angles.

General wireless principles say to avoid metallic surfaces when placing antennas for field devices, such as process instruments and actuators, routers, and gateways. The best situation is to mount the antenna vertically so that it is unobstructed on all sides (figure 1). If a gateway is mounted next to a metallic pole, the signal will be attenuated, even on the side away from the pole. It is far better to move the antenna to the top of the pole, so it can extend into free space, or to extend the antenna mounting horizontally, so there is at least a 1-meter gap between the antenna and the pole.

Figure 1. For the best signal propagation, each antenna should be mounted vertically with at least 1 m of clear space around it horizontally. This normally means mounting the antenna as high on a structure as possible.

Understanding the Fresnel Zone

Elevated antenna placement is important, because radio communication does not move in a tight beam like a laser. To send the signal from one point to another efficiently, some area in the shape of an ellipse is required. This area is called the Fresnel zone (figure 2). The amount of room available for the signal to spread has a huge effect on signal strength and the distance it can carry, since the longer the distance, the fatter the zone needs to be in the center. Anything violating the zone, which could even be the ground itself, attenuates the strength. Therefore, trying to squeeze a signal through a narrow space, even though it may allow direct LOS, can result in signal attenuation.

For example, where the LOS side clearance has an open space with a radius of 4 m, the communication range can be 500 m. However, when trying to send the signal through a more constricted area where the open space radius is only 2 m, the effective distance will be cut by 75 percent to 128 m. Having open, unobstructed space makes a huge difference, but this is typically a problem in most congested plant environments. This is why mounting devices and antennas as high as possible is so important.

Figure 2. Radio waves tend to propagate through an elliptical space formed between the two antennas. The longer the distance, the larger the required diameter at the center. This space should be as unobstructed as possible to avoid signal attenuation.

Meshing vs. Routing Devices

ISA-100.11a has mechanisms for device-to-device meshing, but the more desired network topology is one where a field device can communicate directly with the gateway, or directly to a router connected to the gateway (figure 3). The goal is to avoid the need for meshing device-to-device, because sending signals between multiple field devices slows down data movement and taxes the devices' batteries.

To facilitate these transmissions, gateways and routers should be mounted as high as practical to clear any surrounding equipment and permit clear LOS connections. My company calls this practice of having a mesh of routers communicating above the plant equipment a sky mesh, and it takes advantage of more powerful transmitters than are practical for individual wireless field devices.

Placement of individual field devices is not as simple. Most native wireless devices, such as a differential pressure instrument, have an integral wireless transmitter and antenna (figure 4). This is very convenient, but can complicate signal propagation. Placement in the process piping or vessel often dictates where the device must be mounted, the antenna orientation, and the surrounding obstructions. Using an antenna extension can address these issues. Another alternative is to add a router mounted as near to the instrument as possible and clear of obstructions. If more than one instrument is in the same difficult location, a single router can service a group.

Figure 3. The gateway is the end point of the network, and is connected to the control and monitoring system via hardwiring. Routers serve as relay points, gathering information from the field devices and passing it to the gateway.

 

Figure 4. Having an antenna mounted on the field device is common, but placement of the field device may put it in a location prone to interference. An external add-on antenna may be needed to improve communication.

Laying out a Network

Most networks are designed from two ends, the field and the control room. Field devices must be located according to their process function, which could easily be in a congested pipe jungle where equipment interferes with clear signal propagation. The final gateway is often placed near the control room, because it is hardwired to the control system. The network must bridge this gap.

Creating a sky mesh requires finding where it is practical to place routers. Ideally, these should be high off the ground and as close to the individual field devices as possible. Ensuring reliable communication between the field devices and the nearest sky mesh router may involve a secondary router in between to compensate for signal loss.

In most process plants, it is not difficult to find tall structures, such as distillation columns, but they may not be located where they are useful for router placement. Positioning antenna to avoid signal blockage problems associated with such large metallic structures can be tricky. As a rule of thumb, if the router is placed 30 m above the ground, it can reach individual field devices close to ground level up to 50 m away (figure 5). This assumes a few beneficial reflections, balanced against some obstructions from piping.

The connection from each field device to the closest router is the most challenging because it often has the most obstructions. Communication between routers and the gateway is easier to visualize and evaluate, since those components are mounted higher above the process equipment in more open space.

Figure 5. Routers in high positions can reach down to communicate with field devices closer to ground level. The practical area of coverage under favorable conditions is roughly a 90º to a 100º cone, with the router as the cone's apex.

Evaluating Performance

The two most common measures of network performance are bit error rate (BER) and packet error rate (PER). The former uses predetermined bit patterns to check which are received incorrectly, a process requiring dedicated software on all the field devices, routers, and gateways. It must be performed as a specific test, sending the designated patterns.

PER performance measurements, on the other hand, deal with complete packets and can be done without special tools during normal communication. If a problem is developing, there will be a detectable change in the PER.

The most important indicator is determining how often packets get through correctly the first time. Getting the PER as low as possible is the objective, but this can only be done when all radio links are working reliably.

A well-designed ISA-100.11a wireless instrumentation network can operate as dependably as wired I/O in most applications. When the communication links connect reliably, latency will be minimized, allowing control room operators and other plant personnel to have all the information they need in a timely manner.

 

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Leverage Wireless Communication for Vibration Monitoring
(Leverage Wireless Communication for Vibration Monitoring)
橫河技報
摘要:

The introduction of wireless into industrial monitoring and control not only reduces wiring and maintenance costs but also expands its applications to include those which are impossible with wired systems, such as monitoring points which have to be given up due to the difficulty of the construction, and monitoring of points on rotating or frequently moved objects.

產業別:
摘要:

Yokogawa has been leading the process automation industries as one of the pioneers in field digital technologies represented by the FOUNDATION fieldbus™ and Field Device Tool/Device Type Manager (FDT/DTM).

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