Conductivity Sensors


The measurement of specific conductivity in aqueous solutions is becoming increasingly important for the determination of impurities in water or the concentration measurement of dissolved chemicals.

What is Conductivity?

Conductivity is the measure of a solution's ability to pass or carry an electric current. The term Conductivity is derived from Ohm's Law, E=I•R; where Voltage (E) is the product of Current (I) and Resistance (R); Resistance is determined by Voltage/Current. When a voltage is connected across a conductor, a current will flow, which is dependent on the resistance of the conductor.  Conductivity is simply defined as the reciprocal of the Resistance of a solution between two electrodes.

  • The measurement of specific conductivity in aqueous solutions is becoming increasingly important for the determination of impurities in water.  Yokogawa has designed a full range of precision sensors and instruments to cope with these measurements, even under extreme conditions.

  • Intended for the low conductivity applications found in the semi-conductor, power, water and pharmaceutical industries, these sensors are in a convenient compact style.

  • The Hamilton CONDUCELL 4US sensors for Triclover and INGOLD process connections has often been successfully used where the access port is too narrow for the Inductive Sensors.

  • These conductivity cells have extremely high temperature and pressure ratings: the threaded types can handle 16 bar at 200°C and the flanged types can handle 40 bar at 250°C.

  • Compact, lightweight, and dripproof, the SC72 is the ideal Conductivity meter for field use. Features wide-range auto-ranging, automatic temperature compensation, self-diagnostic functions, and a large, easy-to-read LCD display.

  • The model ISC40 sensors are designed for use with the EXA ISC analyzers. This combination exceeds all expectations for conductivity measurement in terms of reliability, accuracy, rangeability and price performance. 

  • There are numerous industrial applications where measurements and/or control of a specific chemical strength of the process is critical for optimizing the production of the end product. These specific concentrations are obtained by mixing a full strength solution with water to achieve the desired percent concentration.  

  • The measurement of specific conductivity in aqueous solutions is becoming increasingly important for the determination of impurities in water. Yokogawa has designed a full range of precision sensors and instruments to cope with these measurements, even under extreme conditions.

  • Between measuring plant and control room, especially when the distance between these places is greater than the length of the standard appropriate electrode cables, the connecting equipment can be an expedient method for connecting sensor cables to a measuring instrument.

  • Many botech and pharmaceutical applications for determining the purity and quality of the finished product, require the measurement of pH and conductivity in very low volume samples. The PC Flow Block assemblies were specifically designed to achieve accurate pH and conductivity measurements in such low volume applications.

The measurement of specific conductivity in aqueous solutions is becoming increasingly important for the determination of impurities in water or the concentration measurement of dissolved chemicals.

What is Conductivity?

Conductivity is the measure of a solution's ability to pass or carry an electric current. The term Conductivity is derived from Ohm's Law, E=I•R; where Voltage (E) is the product of Current (I) and Resistance (R); Resistance is determined by Voltage/Current. When a voltage is connected across a conductor, a current will flow, which is dependent on the resistance of the conductor.  Conductivity is simply defined as the reciprocal of the Resistance of a solution between two electrodes.

How do we measure Conductivity?

There are two basic sensor styles used for measuring Conductivity: Contacting and Inductive (Toroidal, Electrodeless).

When Contacting Sensors are used, the conductivity is measured by applying an alternating electrical current to the sensor electrodes (that together make up the cell constant) immersed in a solution and measuring the resulting voltage. The solution acts as the electrical conductor between the sensor electrodes.


With Inductive (also called Toroidal or Electrodeless), the sensing elements (electrode colis) of an inductive sensro do not come in direct contact with the process. These two matched (identical coils) are encapsulated in PEEK (or Teflon) protecting them from the adverse effects of the process.   


What makes a solution conductive? 

Ions present in the liquid (Na, Ca, Cl, H, OH) are what is responsible for carrying the electric current.

Conductivity is only a quantitative measurement: it responds to all ionic content and cannot distinguish particular conductive materials in the presence of others. Only ionizable materials will contribute to conductivity; materials such as sugars or oils are not conductive.

Conductivity applications cover a wide range from pure water at less than 1x10-7 S/cm to concentrated solutions with values greater than 1 S/cm. Such application examples are WIFI, demineralizer water, RO water, percent concentration, boiler blowdown and TDS.

In general, the measurement of conductivity is a rapid and inexpensive way of determining the ionic strength of a solution. Conductivity is used to measure the purity of water or the concentration of ionized chemicals in water. It is a nonspecific technique, unable to distinguish between different types of ions, giving instead a reading that is proportional to the combined effect of all the ions present.

The accuracy of the measurement is strongly influenced by temperature variations, polarization effects at the surface of the contacting electrodes, cable capacitances, etc.

Yokogawa has designed a full range of precision sensors and instruments to cope with these measurements, even under extreme conditions.

How do I select the right sensor? 

When selecting a conductivity sensor for an application we need to consider the following:

  • What is the measurement range? (This dictates which cell constant will be required).
  • What is the process temperature? (We have standardized on Pt1000)
  • What is the chemical makeup of the process? (This determines what material of construction we offer to ensure chemical compatibility).

What is a cell constant, and why do we need to be concerned about it?

The cell constant is mathematical value for a "multiplying factor" that is used to determine the measuring range of the sensor. This mathematical value is determined by the geometric design of the cell. It is calculated by dividing the distance (length) between the two measuring plates by the area of the plates (area of the plates is determined by the area of the outside-the area of the inside = area between the electrodes).

The raw conductivity value is then multiplied by the cell constant which is why we see the unit µS (microsiemen)/cm.

Yokogawa offers four cell constants: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0, which provide accurate of the entire Measurement range of 0-2,000,000 µS. These values are known as the nominal cell constant, whereas the printed cell constant on the sensor can vary slightly (you will see 0.0198 instead of 0.02) is the specific cell constant for that sensor. 

One of the problems that occur when an incorrect cell constant is used is Polarization

correct_cc_selected

The first example shows a solution with the correct cell constant where the ions are free to travel from one plate to the other.

wrong_cc_used

The second example shows the same cell constant being used in a highly conductive solution.  When the voltage alternates (switches polarity), the ions cannot freely move to the other plate because the ion density is too high.  This results in fewer ions contacting the correct plate which will result in a false low reading.


However for the ISC40 Inductive Sensor there is only one cell factor (constant). It covers the entire conductivity measruement range 0-2,000 S/cm. But on only the low end (below 50µS) does teh accuracy of the sensor suffer.

Application Note
Overview:

To defray energy costs, many industrial plants have their own boilers to generate steam to produce a portion of their energy needs. In addition to generating power, the steam may also be used directly in plant processes or indirectly via heat exchangers or steam jacketed vessels. 

Industries:
Application Note
Overview:

The term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. Cooling towers are heat-transfer units, used to remove heat from any water-cooled system. The cooled water is then re-circulated (and thus, recycled) back into the system. Since the process water is re-circulated, the mineral concentration increases as a result of the evaporation.

Industry:Refining, Food and Beverage, Power, Oil and Gas, Pulp and Paper, Chemical

Industries:
Overview:

Control of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration at a salt dissolver where solid salt is dissolved in water, is highly important because of the electrolysis efficiency. A conventional way of measuring the concentration of supersaturated NaCl solution had been performed by using non-contact type sensors (e.g., γ-ray density meter) since NaCl, impurities, and precipitates are in the solution.

Overview:

In a semiconductor plant, a variety of chemicals are used in various manufacturing processes. The chemicals used for specific purposes are produced by diluting raw liquid with demineralized water using in diluting equipment, and the control of the concentration at this point is performed by conductivity measurement. 

Overview:

In the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Food & Beverage industries, the cleaning and sterilization of tanks and piping are done with various cleaning solutions, fresh or hot water and steam after manufacturing products. Clean-In-Place (CIP) is the system designed for automatic cleaning and disinfecting.

Overview:

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.

Application Note
Overview:

The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) describes a technology for conversion of wood into wood pulp consisting of almost pure cellulose fibers. Wood chips are by harsh chemicals (white liquor) to produce pulp and spent liquor (black liquor).

Application Note
Overview:

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) is the governing body responsible for issuing guidelines for the pharmaceutical industry. Implementing these guidelines is required for companies that bring drugs to the US market. This means that USP is important to all pharmaceutical companies, period.

How-tos

    Overview:

    Installing the sanitary fitting on an ISC40 sensor. While we strive to provide the most safe and accurate information possible, we are not responsible for any loss or damages resulting from attempting to replicate the acts conducted in this video. Furthermore, we shall not be held liable for use or misuse of information contained in this video.

Webinars

    Overview:

    In this 40 min session you will learn the fundamental requirements for aqueous conductivity measurements; the differences between "Contacting" and "Inductive" measurement techniques and which one to use for a particular application. As well as learn the importance of online diagnostics. The goal is to provide participants with simple techniques they can implement to improve their day to day operations and to identify causes of errors and how to correct them

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