Why measure Conductivity?
It can be used as a fairly inexpensive and low maintenance indicator of water quality. Good quality water with little contaminants will have a low conductivity. There is far less maintenance than pH and minimal calibration. Conductivity is used in Boiler feedwater, RO, and Demineralizer applications.
Since conductivity, up to a point, increases with an increase in the concentration of the ions in the process, we can use it to correlate to a % concentration value of solutions such as acids or bases. Again, since conductivity is non-specific, % concentration can only be measured on ONE chemical at a time and not a mixture of contributing chemicals.
There are two basic sensor styles used for measuring Conductivity: Contacting and Inductive (Toroidal, Electrodeless).
When Contacting Sensors are used, the conductivity is measured by applying an alternating electrical current to the sensor electrodes (that together make up the cell constant) immersed in a solution and measuring the resulting voltage. The solution acts as the electrical conductor between the sensor electrodes.
The accuracy of conductivity measurements can be influenced by the following factors:
|Model Code||SC42 Large Bore||SC4A||SC42 Small Bore|
|Cell Constants||0.01/cm; 0.1/cm; 1.0/cm||0.02/cm; 0.1/cm||0.02/cm; 0.1/cm; 1.0/cm|
|Ranges||0.02-2,000 µS/cm; 0.2-20,000 µS/cm; 2.0-200,000 µS/cm||0.04-400 µS/cm; 0.2-2,000 µS/cm||0.04-400 µS/cm; 0.4-2,000 µS/cm; 4.0-5,000 µ/cm|
|Pressure Rating||10 bar/142 PSIG||10 bar/142 PSIG||7 bar/100 PSIG|
|Installation Connections||Requires FD40, FS40 or FF40 Holder||3/4" NPT Fitting; 1", 1.5" or 2" Tri-Clamp; Retractable||3/4" NPT Fitting; 1", 1.5" or 2" Tri-Clamp|
|Materials Of Construction||316 Stainless Steel||316 Stainless Steel or Titanium||316 Stainless Steel or Titanium|
Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.
To defray energy costs, many industrial plants have their own boilers to generate steam to produce a portion of their energy needs. In addition to generating power, the steam may also be used directly in plant processes or indirectly via heat exchangers or steam jacketed vessels.
The term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. Cooling towers are heat-transfer units, used to remove heat from any water-cooled system. The cooled water is then re-circulated (and thus, recycled) back into the system. Since the process water is re-circulated, the mineral concentration increases as a result of the evaporation.
There are a number of suppliers of oil and fat products used for edible purposes. These products include, but are not limited to olive oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, lard, shortening, butter, and margarine. The raw materials for these products include animal by-products, fleshy fruits (palm and olive), and oilseeds.
United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) is the governing body responsible for issuing guidelines for the pharmaceutical industry. Implementing these guidelines is required for companies that bring drugs to the US market. This means that USP is important to all pharmaceutical companies, period.
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