|Fig.1: Low Flow Cut-off|
One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. A differential pressure transmitter can be placed across many types of primary flow elements like orifice plates, pitot or venturi tubes to measure flow. Primary flow elements create a pressure drop (square root proportional to flow).
Flow proportional output signals from a differential pressure transmitter are possible through integral square root extraction. The square root function of differential pressure has extremely high gain at low flow rates leading to large output changes representing low changes in flow rate at the bottom end of the measurement range. Output signals can become erratic at low flow rates due to high gain. Host control systems can experience difficulty controlling flow rate based on a highly fluctuating input signal from the square root extracted differential pressure. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.
Flow rates above 20% of maximum flow produce a large square root extracted differential pressure signal for a given change in flow rate. Flow rates around 5% of maximum flow produce a small square root extracted differential pressure signal for a given change in flow rate (See Fig.1). High gain in the low flow rate operating area amplifies any inherent noise or changes in flow rate leading to pressure transmitter output instability.
DPharp has a software capability to stabilize output signals at the low end of a flow measurement range minimizing erratic output signals. An integral low cut mode features a user programmable transmitter output and set point to change the output to a linearto- pressure (Linear) or zero (Zero) status. The flow rate set point at which an output transition occurs is programmable from 0 to 20% of full scale flow. Fig.2 shows Linear and Zero output modes set at 5 % low cut mode.
Hysteresis is incorporated into the low cut mode such that when the actual flow rate is equal to the low cut set point that output oscillation will not occur. Hysteresis is fixed at a nominal 1% of full scale flow. Fig.3 details how the hysteresis affects the pressure transmitter output.
Main Features of DPharp
EJA110A Digital Solution
- Best-in-class performance
- ±0.03% Overpressure calibration protection
- ±0.1% per 5 years long term stability
- 100:1 turndown
- ±0.065% accuracy
EJX110A Premium Value
- ±0.1% per 10 years long term stability
- 200:1 turndown
- Best-in-class high accuracy, 0.04%
- Multi-sensing output
- Multi-variable transmitter as EJX family line-up
- Safety as standard (IEC 61508)
Chemia specjalistyczna i wysokowartościowa
Yokogawa has long served customers in the specialty and fine chemicals market. With a market leading batch solution that offers the best in class reliability and flexibility as well as industry experts who understand the complex requirements in designing a batch solution, you can be assured that in your partnership with Yokogawa you will have a system that will enable you to produce products that meet your customers’ needs in the future while maintaining safety and regulatory compliance.
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Yokogawa has operated the global power solutions network to play a more active role in the dynamic global power market. This has allowed closer teamwork within Yokogawa, bringing together our global resources and industry know-how. Yokogawa's power industry experts work together to bring each customer the solution that best suits their sophisticated requirements.
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Ropa i gaz
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Ropa i gaz downstream
The oil & gas downstream industry has been facing an increasing number of challenges in recent years. These include the changing characteristics of the feedstock to be processed, aging of process facilities and equipment, rising cost of energy, lack of skilled plant operators who can run a refinery safely and efficiently, and the ever-changing requirements from both the market and the customer.
Over the years, Yokogawa has partnered with many downstream companies to provide industrial solutions focused on solving these challenges and problems. Yokogawa's VigilantPlant solutions have helped plant owners to achieve maximum profitability and sustainable safety within their plants.
The right pipeline control and instrumentation can make a huge difference in terms of performance and profitability. Yokogawa has dedicated technology that can optimize the performance of all elements of a pipeline solution, including compressors, pumps, valves, and intermediate storage and distribution facilities.
The upstream industry includes offshore and onshore activities including wellhead automation, fractionation, completion, and separation to recover and prepare underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas.
As petroleum is brought to the surface, it must be separated prior to transport. Primary and secondary separation stages commonly distribute gas flow, water flow, and oil flow in three phase separation. Gas movement requires pipeline and can include a fractionation process in the upstream stage prior to movement. Liquids can be placed into a tanks or pipelines and sent for processing, requiring accurate level measurements.
Industrial water is used in all industrial plants such as power generation stations, refineries and petrochemical plants. Yokogawa’s single control platform handles all water and wastewater control processing integrated with the main process.
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