Oil & Gas Downstream

The oil & gas downstream industry has been facing an increasing number of challenges in recent years. These include the changing characteristics of the feedstock to be processed, aging of process facilities and equipment, rising cost of energy, lack of skilled plant operators who can run a refinery safely and efficiently, and the ever-changing requirements from both the market and the customer.

Over the years, Yokogawa has partnered with many downstream companies to provide industrial solutions focused on solving these challenges and problems. Yokogawa's VigilantPlant solutions have helped plant owners to achieve maximum profitability and sustainable safety within their plants.

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Refining

In the ever changing marketplace, refineries are seen not only as crude processing units but also as profit centers. At the same time, there is a keen awareness of the need for safety at such facilities. A total production solution that encompasses planning, scheduling, management, and control is required to achieve long-term goals for profitability, efficiency, and environmental protection. With years of expertise in the automation field, Yokogawa can bring you affordable total solutions for improved operability and a cleaner world.

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Terminal

Today, many end-users not only in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries, but also in the LNG/LPG and bulk industries are facing common logistical challenges. Those challenges include shortening the product delivery time, improving loading efficiency, adapting to changes in the manufacturing process, improving safety, increasing administrative efficiency, reducing labor costs, integrating data systems, visualizing operations, managing traffic, and so forth.

Yokogawa has been providing solutions to meet customers’ needs for terminal automation and management for decades.

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Lube Oil

In lubricant manufacturing, there are ever-changing complex and exacting formulation requirements, whether the material is processed in an in-line blending system or as a batch process. Accordingly, the control and information system must provide the flexibility to keep changing the formulas and procedures, while also being highly reliable and accurate.

Overview:
  • Smooth project execution with no schedule and/minimal safety incidents.
  • Easy to use, easy to reconfigure interface that has resulted in numerous post-installation enhancements.
  • Minimizing day-to-day plant operation problems including reducing the alarming factor.
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  • Successful migration of in-line blending distributed control and oil movement systems.
  • To minimize operator intervention and to keep the product properties on specification.
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  • Fast online gas chromatograph (GC) analysis for LPG distillation.
  • The analytical upgrade project with Yokogawa's process GCs was complete success.
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  • This has considerably improved the safety, quality, and efficiency of off-site operations.
  • Yokogawa was the clear choice for installation of the OMS.
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  • CENTUM CS 3000 plays key role in Malaysian waste oil to diesel project.
  • Yokogawa proposed to provide its systems and services as the main instrument vendor.
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  • Flawless refinery start-up assured by operator training simulator.
  • The virtual test function of the OmegaLand simulator created the same environments as CENTUM CS 3000.
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  • To replace the existing CENTUM XL control station with the latest Yokogawa CS 3000 hardware and upgrade the control network.
  • The plan was to minimize plant downtime by doing a hot cutover from the old to the new control system.
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Universal Terminal (S) Pte Ltd, one of the largest independent petroleum products storage terminals in the Asia Pacific, has been built on Singapore's Jurong Island at a cost of S$750 million.

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Overview:
  • Smooth and safe switchover to the new system
  • Easy-to-use, easy-to-engineer system, plus various post-installation enhancements
  • Tuned controllers for smooth plant operation and better traceability of process upsets
  • Various other improvements thanks to advanced process control and MVC implementation
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  • Exapilot was introduced to maximize operational efficiency at an experimental refining facility.
  • To prevent operator errors, it was essential to standardize operating procedures.
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  • Computerized Maintenance Management System by PRM and SAP Schedules Field Instrumentation Maintenance.
  • The frame applications and DTMs support the preventive maintenance strategy with self-diagnostic and condition monitoring.
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PetroChina Guangxi Petrochemical Company has completed construction of a combined refinery and petrochemical production complex in Qinzhou, a port city in China's Guangxi Autonomous Region. With a 10 million ton per year capacity, the refinery is one of China's largest, and is truly world class, using a highly advanced hydrogenation process, with the main process technologies coming from the USA and France.

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  • To decrease downtime and maintenance costs, the decision was made to introduce Yokogawa's CENTUM DCS.
  • With well-experienced MAC approach, Yokogawa replaced successfully legacy DCS.
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The Mathura refinery is a strategically important facility that supplies diesel, gasoline, aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, furnace oil, and bitumen to customers throughout northwestern India.

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  • HMEL selected an integrated solution from Yokogawa
  • Yokogawa India oversaw and implemented the engineering, installation, and commissioning of the refinery
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  • Stable regeneration of butane driers and effective start-up of sulfur recovery plant.
  • Exapilot contributes to operational consistency and procedure management in large refinery plant.
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  • The AR1 refinery recently replaced its legacy DCS with Yokogawa's CENTUM CS 3000.
  • Achieving an Intelligent Oil Management System.
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  • Using the CENTUM CS 3000 system, many kinds of plant key performance indexes are calculated and analyzed to produce further improvements.
  • During plant start-up, PRM helps the customer's engineers perform all the loop checks.
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  • Exapilot contributes to safety, reduces cost, and retains operational know-how.
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  • Integrated CENTUM VP and ProSafe-RS Systems Ensure Nonstop Operation of ADU/DKU Processes.
  • "This is a real VigilantPlant! We will continue to improve our production efficiency."
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  • Exapilot smoothly starts up and shuts down the world's biggest experimental distillation unit.
  • Data visualization is the key, giving operators a complete understanding of what is is going on in the process, in real time.
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  • The project goals emphasized schedule, quality, cost and safety.
  • More than 40 sub-system interface cards are utilized for b14 partners company7s system integrated with CENTUM CS 3000.
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  • Yokogawa's FA-M3 PLC improves efficiency and accuracy at the lubricant blending processes in Thailand.
  • FA-M3 is integrated with SFC Excellence's enterprise resource planning and recipe management system.
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Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.

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Steam is still one of the most popular methods of providing an energy source to a process and its associated operations. The more accurate and reliable measurements that are made, the more informed decisions can be taken that affect costs and product quality.

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Application Note
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Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.

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Application Note
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One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.

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Application Note
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Recently, air pollution legislations such as the Clean Air Act to reduce the amount of air pollution are increasing worldwide. The Clean Air Act address numerous air quality problems. One of these problems is acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and other industrial and transportation sources.

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The oil refining industry today faces increasingly strict regulations that dictate both the quality of its products and the diligence of its production processes. As the pioneer of the vortex flow meter technology, Yokogawa's challenge in bringing innovative flow measurement solutions to users in various process industries continues to this day.

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O2 measurement in hydrocarbon vapor is used for safety monitoring in vacuum distillation columns in petroleum refining. With conventional paramagnetic oxygen analyzers, O2 concentrations are obtained through an extractive sampling system, which conditions the sample prior to being analyzed.

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Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.

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The top gas generated at the top of a distillation column in a petroleum refinery's fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) is used to produce gasoline and LPG. The GD402 Gas Density Meter features an intrinsically safe and explosion-proof design, fast response, and a dust-proof, anti-corrosive, and flame-proof construction.

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Storage tanks are used in a variety of industries ranging from holding crude oil to holding feedstock for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

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Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry. Because the large amount of fuel such as gas or fuel oil which is consumed in these processes, their combustion efficiency directly affects the performance and operational costs of the production facilities.

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With industrial and economic development comes increasingly large and advanced power plants and factories. Nevertheless, we find many cases where the original cables, cable tunnels, and other components of the power infrastructure have languished under continuous operation.

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Application Note
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Risk management is crucial when expanding your business.

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Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry.

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In limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization systems, the consumption of a desulfurization agent (lime) is controlled using online pH analyzers.

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Fired heaters are used for various processes in oil refining and petrochemical plants.

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Delayed Coker is a type of coker who's process consists of heating residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a furnace. The most important variable in industrial furnace control is temperature. Temperature is measured throughout the furnace in different zones and temperature effects the materials being manufactured and therefore must be precisely monitored to prevent deviations in quality of the final product.

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Challenges

  • The distance is not so long, but there are many pipes and tanks ("Pipe Jungle") in the field.
  • Had to avoid the obstacles and take care multi path condition.  

Solution

Repeater is installed on high place between control room and monitor position. The extend cable is used for antenna of Gateway.

  • Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x1, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x2
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The client wanted to monitor the temperature on a chimney. Exhaust air is exposed to the heat on the way traveling from the inlet to the outlet in the chimney. Then constituent of the air transform to harmless elements. It is important to keep the temperature in the chimney as designed.

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A multivariable model based predictive control (MPC) was implemented at the FCCU "A" in YPF S.A. Refinería La Plata.

There are three MPC controllers installed: one covering the reactor-regenerator-main fractionator, other controlling the gas con- centration plant ant the third controlling an isolated depropanizer column. The paper describes the implementation of the project, the controller structure and the main results obtained from the MPC. 

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Visual MESA© is a steam system optimization and management computer program that was originally developed at Chevron and now marketed by Nelson & Roseme, Inc. Visual MESA is currently used at refinery and chemical manufacturing sites to optimize the overall site steam system and the parts of the electrical system that economically trade off with the steam system.

This paper will explore significant optimization variables and constraints commonly encountered in refinery steam system optimization, the strategies Visual MESA uses to deal with them.

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Hydrogen management can have a significant effect on refinery utility supply through the integration with the rest of the utilities. Real-time optimization of hydrogen production in conjunction with steam, power and fuels can yield significant savings opportunities for the refinery. 

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This paper describes the tasks performed to develop and implement real time, online models, to help with the three KNPC refineries energy cost minimization and energy management, which are scheduled to perform it automatically. They allow to clearly identify the different economic trade-offs that challenges the operation of the site wide energy systems at minimum cost while reducing the energy waste and, therefore, CO2 footprint. Recommendations given by the optimizers are taken into account by operations on a daily basis 

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In general, refineries exhibit a very good potential for real time monitoring and optimization using Visual MESA Energy Management System.

Based on our extensive experience, overall benefit in the range of 2% to 5% of the total energy cost can be achieved. Expected project payback is always less than one year.

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This article describes the tasks performed to develop and implement a real time, online model for energy cost minimisation and energy management at KNPC's MAA refinery.

After a description of the main project implementation tasks, the Real Time Energy Management System's (RTEMS) functionalities are described and the optimisation implementation procedures are commented on. Finally, several obtained results are presented.

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Utilities and energy systems are often the major source of SOx, NOx and CO2 emissions, therefore, emissions control and the management of credits and quotas are tightly interrelated with energy management.

In the case of refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, energy represents the main cost (second to feedstock) and therefore its reduction has become a bottom line business decision. The energy systems at these sites are inherently complex, with the emissions cost analysis and limits compliance introducing an additional factor to the complexity of the energy costs reduction challenge.

Process plants use different type of fuels, they often operate cogeneration units, their steam networks consist of several pressure levels, there are different types of energy consumers and there are emission limits to be observed. Import or export of electricity in deregulated markets, which could also be traded off with more or less CO2 and other contaminant gaseous emissions, increase the optimization problem complexity.

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The Repsol YPF Tarragona Refinery operates a large, complex steam system. Utilities Optimization has been performed with an on-line computer based steam management program (VISUAL MESA) in order to make the Refinery more energy efficient and reduce steam system operating costs.

VISUAL MESA allows operators and engineers to:

  1. Monitor steam production and use;
  2. Optimize the production and use of steam, fuel and power in order to reduce 
costs;
  3. Perform "what-if" studies, and
  4. Audit the system with continually validated data. 
Nelson & Roseme, Inc. and Soteica Europe S.L. have worked with Repsol YPF Tarragona
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