World's First Truly Integrated Safety Controller

ProSafe-RS is Yokogawa's IEC61508 and ANSI/ISA 84 compliant safety system. It has been used in over 2,400 projects, ranging from large scale integrated process automation projects to stand-alone solutions. Yokogawa's ProSafe-RS safety systems are built with competence, life cycle support and long term sustainability.

ProSafe-RS Overview

World's First Truly Integrated Safety Controller

Yokogawa puts an end to DCS-SIS incompatibility with the ProSafe-RS, the world’s first truly integrated "safety PLC" for the process industries. Achieving absolute integrity between distributed control system (DCS) and safety instrumented system (SIS) for plant automation has traditionally raised complex design and integration issues. Conventionally, two separate monitoring and operating environments were required for a DCS and SIS.  Different communications and distinctive hardware architectures had to be set up.  Plant managers striving to optimize process operations have taken it as a given that project time and expenses would escalate.

10 years and thanks for the future

ProSafe-RS was released in February 2nd 2005. It can be fully integrated with CENTUM series integrated production control systems, and is certified for use in SIL3 applications. Since its release, ProSafe-RS has been implemented in more than 2,400 projects around the world.

In February 2015, Yokogawa was awarded the Japan Techno-Economics Society's President's Award.

What's New

Release Information of ProSafe-RS R4.04
– Enhancements to this core product in the OpreX™ Control and Safety System family of solutions that allow TCO reduction –

Control system virtualization platform

Yokogawa’s control system virtualization platform enables a single server to perform the work of multiple virtual PCs, thus reducing the number of PCs required to configure a control system.
With this platform, both the hardware and software required to build a virtual environment are provided.
By means of this virtualized server environment, it is possible to separately update and make modifications to hardware and software as required.

Compatible with the latest server operating system

ProSafe-RS R4.04 is compatible with Windows Server 2016, which delivers the latest security functions.

Release Information of ProSafe-RS R4.03.10

With the release of ProSafe-RS R4.03.10, it enables a SIL2 wireless gas detection system for FGS. In conjunction with  expertise in production control, safety instrumentation, field wireless engineering and consulting, Yokogawa offers the most efficient and timely approach to deliver  end to end wireless  solution.

ProSafe-RS (SIL3 SIS) and YFGW510 (Field Wireless Access Point)

ProSafe-RS (SIL3 SIS) and
YFGW510 (Field Wireless Access Point)


Wireless devices have a number of advantages such as allowing installation in difficult-to-access locations and the reduction of installation costs, and they are increasingly seen as essential elements in plant safety solutions. This is a particularly important consideration with gas detection systems, whose operation can be easily  influenced by factors such as installation location and ambient conditions.  Even after system installation, ongoing efforts to optimize its overall configuration may necessitate occasional changes in the location and number of detection devices. The use of wireless technology eliminates the need to worry about wiring and thus greatly facilitates the process of moving and/or installing additional detection devices.
(Will be released in September.)

Release Information of ProSafe-RS R4.03.00

In response to the rising importance for FGS solutions, the release of ProSafe-RS R4.03.00 added features allow better operations, easier engineering and hardware reduction. By adding a new smart digital input/output (I/O) module and enabling the use of Ring Vnet/IP network topology, we are giving our customers best performance and cost efficiency Integrated Control and Safety Systems (ICSS) depending on their needs. Cybersecurity has also been strengthened together with latest operating system.

Dual face faceplate

Better Operations, easier Engineering and Hardware Reduction

  • Standard FGS HMI parts for gas, flame, smoke and heat detectors are added for better operations.
  • Standard function blocks for FGS detectors are added for easier engineering.
  • ProSafe-RS analog module can reset smoke and heat detectors alarms without additional hardware such as relays and DO modules.

Optimal solutions for best performance and cost efficiency

  • Smart digital I/O module has been added to N-IO lineup.
  • Ring topology has been added to Vnet/IP.

Improved cybersecurity with ease of management

  • ProSafe-RS engineering station’s software security functions are improved.
  • A new centralized management function can apply the same security settings to multiple monitoring and operation PCs.

Latest operating system support

  • ProSafe-RS engineering station’s software supports Windows 10.

Release Information of ProSafe-RS R4.02

With the release of ProSafe-RS R4.02, it enable users to accurately define and capture the functional requirements of any new or existing SIS application, providing added value throughout the safety life cycle. Users can also configure and adapt their overall FSM philosophy, processes and procedures within R4.02, encapsulating and improving their own functional safety environment in line with the guidelines of IEC61511.

Safety Lifecycle Management Support Function

  • Advanced Application Logic Engineering
    Cause & Effect (CE) Module
    Allows the user to develop a CE matrix to describe the functional relationship between the input and the output variable and automatic generation of application to Function Block Diagram.

    State Analysis (SA) Module
    Allow the user to develop state chart style models to describe the detailed behavior of an complex application (eg. BMS) and automatic generation of application to Function Block Diagram
Advanced Application Logic Engineering
and Advanced Test Function
  • Advanced Test Function
    Integrated Test Framework
    Allow the user to combine simulation models and module components into a single framework for test and review.
  • Plant Simulation Models
    Provide low fidelity process models and animated visual representation of process information and operator panels. Increases knowledge of the users on the function and operation of the SIS
  • Functional Safety Management (FSM)
    Allows the user to define the safety and project lifecycle phases, assign resource, plan activities, identify verification and functional assessment milestones and configure documentation.
Functional Safety Management (FSM)


About OpreX

OpreX is the comprehensive brand for Yokogawa’s industrial automation (IA) and control business. The OpreX name stands for excellence in the technologies and solutions that Yokogawa cultivates through the co-creation of value with its customers, and encompasses the entire range of Yokogawa’s IA products, services, and solutions. This brand comprises the following five categories: OpreX Transformation, OpreX Control, OpreX Measurement, OpreX Execution, and OpreX Lifecycle. One of the product groups that make up the OpreX Control category is the OpreX Control and Safety System family, which includes the ProSafe-RS. With its various OpreX Control solutions, Yokogawa is able to quickly effect changes for its customers that lead to a transformation in such areas as management and operations, and provides highly reliable control technology that ensures high efficiency, high quality, and safe and stable plant operations.

With the OpreX brand, Yokogawa will deliver integrated solutions that address specific needs and support its customers in their efforts to transform and grow their businesses.

ProSafe-RS is composed of the Safety Engineering PC (SENG) equipped with engineering and maintenance functions, the Safety Control Station (SCS) for safety control and Vnet/IP for control network to communicate with each of those equipment.

Image Zoom

ProSafe-RS can be integrated with the CENTUM VP. The SCS can be operated and monitored by the HIS (Human Interface Station) of the CENTUM VP. It is also possible to connect to other DCSs and PLCs via subsystem communication (Modbus communication).

HART communication on ProSafe-RS allows Plant Resource Manager (PRM) to manage the HART communication devices connected to I/O modules on SCS. Also, the AO signal allows PRM client to conduct Partial Stroke Test (PST) on HART-supported valve positioner equipped with the PST function.

One architecture

Seamless architecture achieves true integration of DCS and SIS, contributing to plant optimization.

Expected operational benefits:

  • faster project implementation at a lower cost - using just one process network saves engineering design time
  • greater operational efficiency - integrated information displays are clearer and more usable
  • lower cost of ownership - common control and network architecture standards cut maintenance overhead

Eliminating SIS selection complexities

ProSafe-RS is SIL3 certified in a single module configuration. Redundancy is already built-in to each ultra-compact input, output, and processor card. This intrinsically simple modularity makes it possible to design systems with ease. If additional system availability is required, users can add redundancy on a function by function basis by simply plugging in the appropriate module.

Yokogawa's parallel engineering

Application engineering and hardware engineering can progress independently and parallel. This parallel work shortens the project schedule, either by starting later or by possibly enabling an earlier start-up.


1. Early start-up of a plant

Starting up a plant more quickly has long been an issue that directly affects customers’ profits.

Although the start-up of instruments and the installation of I/O modules can be performed in parallel, the loop check is completed only after the FAT (Factory Acceptance Test) is finished and the controller and the engineering environment are installed.

In Yokogawa’s parallel engineering, there is no need to wait for the controller and engineering environment to be completed. The integrity of loops can be checked only with N-IO modules and FieldMate Validator. If any change is found in the I/O definition information, it can be corrected on the spot, and the corrected definition can then be refiected in the master information in the plant.

Visit FieldMate Validator

FieldMate Validator

2. Reducing risks to scheduled project delivery

The I/O definition often needs to be changed due to physical constraints. Such problems usually occur during commissioning and may prolong the project schedule, as well as require costly re-wiring.

The I/O definition of N-IO modules can be changed more fiexibly. Signal types among DI/DO/AI/AO can be switched only with software, and there is no need to change I/O modules. Since signal types can be designated at each channel, there is no need to stock I/O modules for each signal type, reducing maintenance costs.

Automation Design Suite (AD Suite)

ProSafe-RS R4 features AD Suite, the same engineering environment used with the CENTUM VP integrated control system, allowing the integrated management of CENTUM VP and ProSafe-RS data.
With this feature, ProSafe-RS engineers can use AD Suite to design the I/O.
AD Suite also has functions for managing the change history and recording changes that save time when renovating systems.


Safety Lifecycle Management Support Function

This function is realized by combining Automation Design Suite (AD Suite) of the ProSafe-RS and iDefine for ProSafe-RS (developed by Trinity Integrated Systems). It provides support to the management of functional safety, advanced application logic generation and advanced test functions.

Advanced Application Logic Engineering

  • For ESD and FGS application, the relationship of input and output variables can be defined in the Cause & Effect (C&E) Module which can be automatically generates into format of IEC 61131 Function Block Diagram(FBD).
  • For BMS application, the State Analysis (SA) module can be used to develop state chart style models to describe the detailed behavior of the application. FBD can also be generated automatically based on the State Analysis Chart.
  • The verification of partial or overall operations of the application can be performed by the Cause & Effect function or the State Analysis function, the specification can be validated step by step.

Advanced Test Function

  • The test function allows the user to test the application logic and automatically generate the test report by using test scripts. The test scripts can be used repeatedly until the application logic becomes error-free.
  • The test results can be confirmed visually and in real time with the C&E and SA chart. Full history recording, event recording and playback enables further review and refinement.

FSM support function

It uses a whiteboard template to provide support for

  • Defining safety and project lifecycle phases
  • Resources assignment
  • Planning activities
  • Identifying functional assessment and verification milestones


The logical solution for perfect control

The logical solution to perfect control

One network

ProSafe-RS plugs directly onto the same network used by Yokogawa's field-proven CENTUM VP.  No gateway or interface hardware is required for data exchange between SIS and DCS functions.  Safety communication between SIS controllers is realized and certified in a mixed DCS - SIS configuration.

Expected benefits:

  • simple and quick route to system realization
  • reduced engineering complexity and cost for connecting SIS and DCS
  • lower maintenance costs for large process plants


Safe, reliable and available control without compromise

Safe, reliable and available control without compromise

One architecture

Seamless architecture achieves true integration of DCS and SIS, contributing to plant optimization.

Expected operational benefits:

  • faster project implementation at a lower cost - using just one process network saves engineering design time
  • greater operational efficiency - integrated information displays are clearer and more usable
  • lower cost of ownership - common control and network architecture standards cut maintenance overhead

Eliminating SIS selection complexities

ProSafe-RS is SIL3 certified in a single module configuration. Redundancy is already built-in to each ultra-compact input, output, and processor card. This intrinsically simple modularity makes it possible to design systems with ease. If additional system availability is required, users can add redundancy on a function by function basis by simply plugging in the appropriate module.

Significant gains in the capabilities of plant displays


  • Common human-machine interface (HMI)
    No more separate monitoring of SIS and DCS. While continuing to use the interface that they are most familiar with, operators can more rapidly predict which process conditions are likely to reach emergency levels.
  • Unified event data
    Sample screens such as "faceplate" style instrument and alarm displays are provided that enable easy data comparison and decision making.
  • Back-tracking analysis
    A further benefit of data integration is the ability to analyze events preceding an alarm - a powerful tool for effective process safety management.

It's now easy to create displays that integrate DCS and SIS data.

It's now easy to create displays that integrate DCS and SIS data.

In addition to conventional I/O modules dedicated for specific signal types (FIO module), ProSafe-RS R4 can offer the N-IO module, which handles different signal types at each channel.
By concurrently accepting both types of module, ProSafe-RS R4 can deal more flexibly with a customer’s plant design requirements. 


N-IO (Network I/O): Smart Configurable I/O (SCIO)


  • DI/DO/AI/AO signals can be handled at a single module.
    The types of I/O signal at each channel can be changed with software.
  • Remote installation up to 50 km is available by using optical cables.
  • SIL3 can be achieved with single configuration. Redundant configuration is also selectable.
  • Terminal block has a disconnect function of signal loop of field devices as a standard function.
  • An N-IO baseplate is available for intrinsically safe barriers.
    For more detailed information please visit the below sites.
  • N-IO eliminates the need for marshalling cabinets, further saving space and costs. Thus this is ideal for flexible and distributed installation in the field.


FIO (Field network I/O)


  • A variety of I/O modules (AI/AO/DI/DO/Communication function) are available.
  • Modbus TCP/RTU communication (Master/Slave) is available by using communication modules.
  • Remote installation up to 50 km is available by using optical cables.
  • SIL3 can be achieved with single configuration. Redundant configuration is also selectable.
  • Dedicated terminal boards, terminal blocks, and cables for FIO are supported.


A single, simple, SIL3 solution

A single, simple, SIL3 solution

Yokogawa designers have employed state-of-the-art electronic design techniques and component packaging to miniaturize the safety controller circuitry. Every ProSafe-RS processor, input module, and output module features a dual architecture, providing users with SIL3-level protection on a single card. This architecture is simplicity itself to understand, design, install and maintain. Complete safeguarding now comes in one box. Furthermore, the design has an extremely high diagnostic coverage factor of more than 99%, providing users with a means of rapid fault detection that can allow repairs to be effected within an acceptable period - with minimal impact on the process.

Plug-in availability

Plug-in availability

If even higher system availability and fault tolerance is required, ProSafe-RS can be configured for dual redundancy while maintaining SIL3 by simply plugging in the appropriate additional card. Because the I/O or processing functions of ProSafe-RS have a modularity that extends down to the function level, redundancy can be applied exactly where it is needed - to input, output, or processor modules - providing a combination of safety and economy that is unprecedented in the SIS market. This flexibility allows any mix of dual redundancy to be configured such as a single input and redundant output or a redundant input and single output.

Versatile Modular Redundancy (VMR)

Versatile Modular Redundancy

With its flexible selection of redundant CPU and I/O modules, ProSafe-RS delivers the high availability required by even SIL3 applications. Rather than making selections at the system or rack level, you can apply redundancy exactly where it is needed - in specific input, output or processor modules - depending on such factors as the required SIL for a loop or the reliability of field devices.This is possible because the I/O and processing functions of ProSafe-RS have a modularity that extends down to the function level.

Even when an internal failure occurs, safety functionality is maintained, reducing the likelihood of a false trip in a process.
We call this flexible plug-in availability “VMR / Versatile Modular Redundancy™".

Partial Stroke Test (PST)

Under normal conditions, valves that are integrated with a safety instrumented system (SIS) are not activated. (They are only actuated when the SIS initiates a process shutdown after an abnormality is detected in a process.) It is therefore necessary to periodically test valves to ensure that they are in good working order and will respond properly when needed.

This periodic check is called a “proof test,” and generally it involves a full stroke test (completely closing the valves). When a plant is up and running, the costly installation of a bypass is necessary to conduct a proof test. If this is not possible, the only other option for conducting this test is to shut down the plant. As a consequence, proof tests of the valves are usually conducted only once every several years.
An alternative to the full stroke test is the partial stroke test (PST), which involves slightly closing a valve to diagnose problems. A PST can be conducted without stopping a process, and it can be performed remotely from locations such as a control room.

By conducting a PST, plant owners can significantly reduce their maintenance costs. And by checking the valves more frequently than is possible with the full stroke test, they can anticipate great benefits such as increased reliability .

Note: although the PST does not eliminate the need for a full stroke test, it makes it possible to extend the proof test interval without sacrificing the required safety level.

Complied Standards

ProSafe-RS system hardware conforms to the standards listed below. Please use the ProSafe-RS system in the industrial environment only.

  • PLC
    IEC 61131-2
  • Functional safety
    IEC 61508, IEC 61131-6, IEC 61511-1, IEC 62061
  • Application
    EN 54-2, EN 298, EN 50156-1, NFPA85, NFPA86, NFPA72
  • Safety
    CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 61010-1 (100-120 V AC power supply specification)
    [CE Marking] Low Voltage Directive
    EN 61010-1, EN 61010-2-201, EN 61010-2-030, EN 60825-1
    (100-120 V AC, 220-240 V AC, and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    [EAC Marking]
     CU TR 004
  • EMC Standards
    [CE Marking] EMC Directive
    EN 55011 Class A Group 1 equivalent
    (100-120 V AC, 220-240 V AC, and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    EN 61000-6-2 (100-120 V AC, 220-240 V AC, and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    EN 61000-3-2 (220-240 V AC power supply specifications)
    EN 61000-3-3 (220-240 V AC power supply specifications)
    EN 55011 Class A Group 1
    (220-240 V AC and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    [KC Marking]
    Korea Electromagnetic Conformity Standard
    (100-120 V AC, 220-240 V AC, and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    [EAC Marking]
    CU TR 020
    [Functional Safety]
    IEC 61326-3-1
  • Hazardous location equipment
    [FM Non-Incendive]
    Class I Division 2 Groups A, B, C and D Temperature Code T4
    FM Standard Class Number 3600: 2011
    FM Standard Class Number 3611: 2004
    FM Standard Class Number 3810: 2005
    (100-120 V AC, 220-240 V AC, and 24 V DC power supply specifications)
    [Type "n"]
    II 3 G Ex nA IIC T4 GcX (*1)
    II 3 G Ex nA nC IIC T4 GcX (*2)
    EN 60079-0: 2012/A11:2013
    EN 60079-15: 2010
    (for 24 V DC power supply)

    *1: Applied for products complied with Type “n”, except for SSC60x, SSC50x, SBD2D, SBD3D and SBD4D
    *2: Applied for SSC60x, SSC50x, SBD2D, SBD3D and SBD4D
  • Marine Standards
    American Bureau of Shipping (ABS)
    Bureau Veritas (BV)
    Lloyd’s Register

Migration from Legacy System to ProSafe-RS

Difficulty in continuing to maintain your legacy system due to higher costs of maintenance, deteriorating performance, unavailable of spares parts (SIS and PC), uncertain documentation and compliance issues. Yokogawa provides latest SIS and engineering services to migrate/replace your existing system.

Depending on your site situation and migration window, Yokogawa ProSafe-RS offers two options of IO system namely F-IO (conventional IO) and N-IO (smart configurable IO) to allow smooth and low risk migration..

Yokogawa offers services to reverse documentation and application of your legacy system. Validation can be done offline in advance with subject matter experts (Operator, Process Engineer, Maintenance Engineer) and leads to high level of confidence of the conversion. Finally, the validated documents can be imported to ProSafe-RS for application generation.


Migration from ProSafe-PLC to ProSafe-RS

Yokogawa is now offering a service that will allow you to migrate from the well proven ProSafe-PLC platform to our latest safety instrumented system, ProSafe-RS. ProSafe-RS uses a faster CPU and is seamlessly integrated with the CENTUM DCS, greatly improving performance and eliminating the need for a dedicated DCS gateway. ProSafe-RS provides complete integration with the operation and monitoring functions of the CENTUM DCS.


Two migrations plans are available to suit your project needs:

Plan 1 (recommended)
This is a complete replacement of the entire ProSafe-PLC system, including control and I/O modules, terminal boards, and wiring, with all elements of the ProSafe-RS system. The compact terminal boards are a key element of this plan.

Plan 2
The ProSafe-PLC control and I/O modules are replaced with ProSafe-RS control and I/O modules. With this plan, the existing field wiring can be used because the modified system continues to use the ProSafe-PLC terminal boards. This plan is implemented with the migration adaptors and the related products.
(Note: The end of support date for the ProSafe-PLC terminal boards is 2018.)

  • A certified emergency shutdown system
  • Substantial reduction in maintenance work
  • System configuration with reduced footprint
  • System scalability
  • Completion of First FPSO Project for Prosafe Production Services Pte Ltd
  • Integrated Control & Safety System (ICSS) makes possible centralised plant supervision and management of all control and safety functions on this FPSO.
  • Meet the IEC 61508/JIS C 0508 functional safety standards
  • Proactively introduce leading edge technologies
  • Accommodate the plant licensors' safety, reliability, and maintainability requirements
  • Improve the monitoring and operation functions of the emergency shutdown system
  • Operational Excellence by Asset Maximization, Utilizing Yokogawa's DCS, SIS, Analyzers, and Field Instruments.
  • The CENTUM VP PCS and ProSafe-RS SIS were integrated using the same engineering environment.
  • Nearly 60 gas chromatographs and a large number of other types of analyzers in several analyzer houses.
  • Legacy ProSafe-PLC SIS replaced with ProSafe-RS to improve sustainable lifecycle support at LNG terminal.
  • The seamless use of the same HMI for both PCS and SIS, and improved safety and integrity.
  • Integrated CENTUM VP and ProSafe-RS Systems Ensure Nonstop Operation of ADU/DKU Processes.
  • "This is a real VigilantPlant! We will continue to improve our production efficiency."
  • Rapid Implementation of Integrated CENTUM CS 3000 and ProSafe-RS.
  • The highly reliable CENTUM CS 3000 system has also helped TOL maintain high productivity at this plant.
  • Modern waste to energy facility in UK uses CENTUM CS 3000 and ProSafe-RS
  • Lakeside exports at least 34MW per hour to the country's national grid
  • As the main automation contractor (MAC) for this plant construction project, Yokogawa Brazil engineered, installed, and commissioned an integrated control and instrumentation solution
  • Yokogawa Brazil completed the commissioning of these systems ahead of schedule and the production of green polymer was started just one week later
  • World's first offshore regasification terminal relies on Yokogawa ICSS (CENTUM CS 3000, ProSafe-RS).
  • LNG carrier scheduling, unloading, tank storage, and vaporizing are all procedure based operations.
  • OTS for familialization of liquefaction processes and operator training.
  • Yokogawa's integrated solutions contribute to safe and steady production at gas liquefaction plant in Norway.
  • Online hot cut over from the legacy Honeywell TDC3000 to the Yokogawa CENTUM CS 3000.
  • The work was successfully completed 48 days ahead of schedule and without disruption to operations.
  • HMEL selected an integrated solution from Yokogawa
  • Yokogawa India oversaw and implemented the engineering, installation, and commissioning of the refinery

In maintaining and managing industrial plants, monitoring waste water pH/ORP is both a legal obligation and an unavoidable necessity for protecting the environment. Monitoring without an attentive eye can lead to severe consequences.


Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.


Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.


Network and system security is now a necessity in process automation industry. YOKOGAWA provides a service lifecycle solution for cyber security to ensure that the security measures and deployments are continuously enhanced, monitored and inspected.

This white paper explains the details of the security design, implementation, operation and validation solutions from the technical perspective.


Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.


Migration of a refinery's DCS provided an opportunity to reconfigure and consolidate the control rooms and operational management system.


September 2006

Launched in February 2005, Yokogawa's ProSafe-RS safety instrumented system (SIS) quickly gained a significant share of the market. Just 18 months later, 100 units had been sold-quite a feat considering the generally conservative nature of the SIS market. So what is behind this rapid success?


April/May 2007

A Yokogawa ProSafe-RS safety instrumented system (SIS) will be the nucleus of a new fire and gas safety system at Shell's Clyde (NSW) refinery. The contract includes the control system, system engineering and installation and supervision.


LNG Industry, Summer 2012

Martin te Lintelo, Yokogawa, The Netherlands, discusses the need for better automation, measurement and control instruments to cope with the rising popularity of LNG.


Due to emerging competitors from the rapidly growing countries such as India and China and the global economic downturn triggered by the Lehman shock, many companies in the process industries are struggling to survive the severe global competition.

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