Processes requiring pure water must continually replace the water being consumed. Sources of replacement water are usually local supplies from a river or lake and therefore require pre-treatment and purification before it can be used in the process.
After preliminary purification which may include filtration, clarification and softening, further downstream, a two-pass reverse osmosis system and demineralization operations are typically employed to further purify the water.
Osmosis is the natural tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
In reverse osmosis (RO), pressure must be exerted on the side with the concentrated solution to force the water molecules across the semi-permeable membrane to the fresh (pure) water side.
This semi-permeable membrane inhibits the majority of dissolved impurities from passing through to the pure water side. The amount of impurities carried over depends on the type and condition of the membrane (i.e. age, cleanliness) and the amount of pressure applied (energy) to the process.
Not all the feed water passes through the membrane. Some is diverted to flow over them to cleanse away the rejected impurities in a cross-flow filtration mode.
The RO system produces one purified water stream called permeate and a second stream called concentrate, brine, or reject. Feedwaterenters the machine at fairly low pressure and flows through pre-filters to remove suspended particles, such as silt. Pre-filters are typically a replaceable cartridge type which provides a cost effective method for keeping the membrane clean. Typical life expectancy for these membranes is approximately three years.
RO systems are designed for automatic operation and require routine preventative and corrective maintenance. Common problems include membrane fouling and the use of improper flow rates. The result is reduced throughput capacity and shortened runs.
Membranes can fail altogether, resulting in excessive demand on downstream purification systems and poor quality product water.
Both pH and conductivity measurements are used to safeguard the successful operation of an RO system.
Some types of RO membranes are sensitive to feed water pH and can become damaged if the pH is outside the recommended range of 5 to 8 pH.A pH sensor upstream of the membrane can provide a feedback signal to control dosing of acidic or basic reagent to maintain the pH within acceptable limits.
Conductivity measurements are used at both the inlet and outlet of the RO unit to determine whether the total dissolved solids are being filtered effectively.
Reverse osmosis systems can remove up to 100% of suspended solids and approximately 90% of dissolved solids, dissolved silica, alkalinity and hardness.
A common use for RO is for purifying water, removing salts and other impurities to improve the color, taste and other properties. It is regularly used for commercial and residential water filtration and is also one of the methods used for desalinization of seawater.
RO systems are capable of rejecting bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other constituents which have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 Daltons.
The separation of ions with reverse osmosis is aided by charged particles. This means any dissolved ions which carry a charge, such as salts, are more likely to be rejected by the membrane than those that are not charged, such as organics. The larger the charge and the larger the particle, the more likely it will be rejected.
The majority of RO membranes are negatively charged when they are operated within the pH levels most commonly encountered in water applications.
Pure Water Applications
A two-pass RO system is typically installed upstream of the demineralizer. Its performance is pH dependent with the second-pass section most dramatically affected. While these changes are not significant in the majority of applications, variations become crucial to the success of high-purity water processing.
In addition, the effect of minor feedwater constituents, such as alkalinity and ammonia also play a role in achieving high-purity permeate.
The overall efficiency of dissolved solids removal is usually determined utilizing a pair of conductivity measurements, one at the inlet (cell 1) and one at the outlet (cell 2). This is referred to as % rejection and calculated by the formula:
% rejection = [1-(cell2)/(cell 1)] x 100
For example if the inlet water had 200 ppm of dissolved solids and the outlet water had 10 ppm, the efficiency would be 95% rejection rate. A typical range for this type of application is 80% - 100% rejection.
A final conductivity measurement after the 2nd stage is often used to determine the absolute quality of the outlet water.
Ammonia also affects the production of high purity water and may be present due to municipal chlorination of feedwater or from organic contamination.
Ammonia (NH3) will through the membrane system in either the molecular or ionic (NH4+) form.
Ammonium hydroxide is less conductive than ammonium carbonate [(NH4)2CO3] so it is not uncommon to find off-line samples or storage tank water with conductivity higher than that of on-line readings.
The pH values will be lower. This shift in pH is due to absorption of CO2 from the air and the formation of carbonic acid in the water. Without the presence of ammonia, this type of contamination of highpurity water with CO2 would generate higher conductivity as well as the reduced pH.
Process Liquid Analyzer:
- 2-wire FLXA202 Analyzer
- 4-wire FLXA402 Analyzer
pH Measurement Sensor Selection:
- FF20 Flow-thru assembly with individual measure, reference and temperature electrodes
- FS20 Insertion assembly with individual measure, reference and temperature electrodes
- Bellowmatic reference electrode (SR20-AC32)
- Shock-proof measuring electrode (SM21-AG4)
- Pt1000 temperature electrode (SM60-T1)
Holder: PH8HH Flow Thru assembly
Sensor: PH8EHP Flowing reference pH Sensor for High Purity Water
Conductivity Measurement Sensor Selection:
- FF40 Flow-thru assembly
- FS40 Insertion assembly
Digital SMART Option:
The re-usable smart adapter, SA11, offers full measuring parameter functionality of analog sensors equipped with a Variopin connector and Yokogawa ID chip. The SA11 automatically recognizes the installed sensor and prepares the right configuration.
Note: For additional information on this application contact the local Yokogawa Process Liquid Analyzer Department
Chemical plants rely on continuous and batch production processes, each posing different requirements for a control system. A continuous process calls for a robust and stable control system that will not fail and cause the shutdown of a production line, whereas the emphasis with a batch process is on having a control system that allows great flexibility in making adjustments to formulas, procedures, and the like. Both kinds of systems need to be managed in available quality history of product, and to be able to execute non-routine operations. With its extensive product portfolio, experienced systems engineers, and global sales and service network, Yokogawa has a solution for every plant process.
Food & Beverage
In the food manufacturing industry, in addition to the conventional challenges of achieving both "ensuring food security and safety" and "cost reduction," ｍanufacturers are also working to cope with infectious diseases and labor saving.
YOKOGAWA supports ｍanufacturers to create comfortable workplaces by working closely, coping with challenges together, and proposing ideal factories suitable for operations.
Offshore (FPSO FLNG & FSRU)
Offshore exploration and production requires maximum uptime under harsh conditions. Manned and unmanned facilities need reliable integrated control and safety systems (ICSS) with advanced remote monitoring capabilities. Yokogawa has state-of-the-art technology and extensive experience in executing offshore projects of all sizes and automation levels of complexity.
Oil & Gas Downstream
The oil & gas downstream industry has been facing an increasing number of challenges in recent years. These include the changing characteristics of the feedstock to be processed, aging of process facilities and equipment, rising cost of energy, lack of skilled plant operators who can run a refinery safely and efficiently, and the ever-changing requirements from both the market and the customer.
Over the years, Yokogawa has partnered with many downstream companies to provide industrial solutions focused on solving these challenges and problems. Yokogawa's VigilantPlant solutions have helped plant owners to achieve maximum profitability and sustainable safety within their plants.
In the mid 1970s, Yokogawa entered the power business with the release of the EBS Electric Control System. Since then, Yokogawa has steadfastly continued with the development of our technologies and capabilities for providing the best services and solutions to our customers worldwide.
Yokogawa has operated the global power solutions network to play a more active role in the dynamic global power market. This has allowed closer teamwork within Yokogawa, bringing together our global resources and industry know-how. Yokogawa's power industry experts work together to bring each customer the solution that best suits their sophisticated requirements.
Pulp & Paper
The paper and pulp industry is highly competitive and must meet ever-changing market needs. Yokogawa helps realize energy-efficient plants which are globally sustainable.
In the ever changing marketplace, refineries are seen not only as crude processing units but also as profit centers. At the same time, there is a keen awareness of the need for safety at such facilities. A total production solution that encompasses planning, scheduling, management, and control is required to achieve long-term goals for profitability, efficiency, and environmental protection. With years of expertise in the automation field, Yokogawa can bring you affordable total solutions for improved operability and a cleaner world.
Specialty & Fine Chemical
Yokogawa has long served customers in the specialty and fine chemicals market. With a market leading batch solution that offers the best in class reliability and flexibility as well as industry experts who understand the complex requirements in designing a batch solution, you can be assured that in your partnership with Yokogawa you will have a system that will enable you to produce products that meet your customers’ needs in the future while maintaining safety and regulatory compliance.
The upstream industry includes offshore and onshore activities including wellhead automation, fractionation, completion, and separation to recover and prepare underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas.
As petroleum is brought to the surface, it must be separated prior to transport. Primary and secondary separation stages commonly distribute gas flow, water flow, and oil flow in three phase separation. Gas movement requires pipeline and can include a fractionation process in the upstream stage prior to movement. Liquids can be placed into a tanks or pipelines and sent for processing, requiring accurate level measurements.
Water & Wastewater
Water resources are finite, and therefore contributing to a sustainable water cycle is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yokogawa has been providing advanced digital control solutions for the stable supply of clean and safe water, wastewater treatment for protecting the water environment, water loss management and optimization of plant operation for reducing CO2 emissions and running costs. With our leading-edge technologies, dependable products and extensive expertise and experience of diverse water projects around the world, we work with you to provide sustainable water solutions that boost your business and add value throughout the plant lifecycle.
Yokogawa supports a wide range of water control applications in both the municipal and industrial water markets.
Zugehörige Produkte & Lösungen
Die Analysatoren der FLEXA-Serie werden für kontinuierliche Online-Messungen in industriellen Anlagen verwendet. Mit der Option für die Ein- oder Zwei-Sensor-Messung sind sie die flexibelsten 2-Leiter-Analysegeräte auf dem Markt.
Die Analysatoren der FLEXA™ Serie werden für kontinuierliche Online-Messungen in industriellen Anlagen verwendet. Mit der Option für die Ein- oder Zwei-Sensor-Messung sind sie die flexibelsten 2-Leiter-Analysegeräte auf dem Markt.
Digitaler SENCOM™ SMART-Adapter, SA11
Wiederverwendbarer SMART-Adapter, bei dem nur der Analogsensor am Ende der Lebensdauer entsorgt werden muss. Mit der Plattform SENCOM 4.0 reduziert Yokogawa Kosten und Abfälle und trägt damit zu seinem langfristigen Unternehmensziel einer nachhaltigen Zukunft für alle bei.
Yokogawa hat viel Aufwand und Zeit in die Entwicklung einer breiten Palette von Armaturen investiert. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt lag dabei auf der Senkung von Installations- und Wartungskosten und somit günstigeren Betriebskosten.
Konduktive Leitfähigkeitssensoren SC42/SC4A(J)
Die Messung der spezifischen Leitfähigkeit in wässrigen Lösungen wird immer wichtiger für die Bestimmung von Verunreinigungen im Wasser. Yokogawa hat ein vollständiges Programm an Präzisionssensoren und -instrumenten entwickelt, um diese Messungen auch unter extremen Bedingungen zuverlässig durchführen zu können.
Die Analysatoren der FLEXA™-Serie sind modular gestaltete Analysegeräte für kontinuierliche Online-Messungen in industriellen Anlagen. Sie ermöglichen Messungen mit einem oder mehreren Sensoren.
Leitfähigkeitssensoren und -analysatoren werden für die kontinuierliche Messung und Überwachung von Leitfähigkeit, Widerstand, prozentualer Konzentration und gesamte gelöste Feststoffe (TDS) eingesetzt. Anwendung finden diese Sensoren beispielsweise in Entsalzungsanlagen oder bei der Abschlämmung von Kesseln.
Leitfähigkeitssensoren dienen zur Messung von Leitfähigkeit, Widerstand, WIFI, prozentualer Konzentration und den gesamten gelösten Feststoffen (TSD). Anwendung finden diese Sensoren beispielsweise in Entsalzungsanlagen, der Wasseraufbereitung in Umkehrosmoseanlagen oder bei der Abschlämmung von Kesseln. Die verschiedenen Installationsoptionen schließen u. a. Wechsel-, Durchfluss- und Eintaucharmaturen sowie den direkten Einbau ein. Die richtige Auswahl von Sensoren ist für optimale Messergebnisse von entscheidender Bedeutung.
pH- und ORP-Analysatoren
Sensoren und Analysatoren für pH und ORP (Redox) werden zur kontinuierlichen Überwachung von pH- und ORP-Werten im Prozess eingesetzt, z.B. um die Wasser- und Produktqualität sicherzustellen oder um Abflüsse, Batch-Neutralisierung, Zellstoffbestand, Gaswäscher, Kühltürme, chemische Aufbereitung, Wasser- und Abwasserbehandlung und viele andere Anwendungen zu überwachen.
pH- und Redoxsensoren
pH-Elektroden und -Sensoren sind die detektierenden Elemente bei der Messung des pH-Werts. Die verschiedenen Installationsoptionen schließen u. a. Wechsel-, Durchfluss- und Eintaucharmaturen sowie den direkten Einbau ein. Die richtige Auswahl von pH-Elektroden und Sensoren ist für optimale Messergebnisse von entscheidender Bedeutung.
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