DTSX3000 Distributed Temperature Sensor

The DTSX3000 can measure up to 50 km long distances. This makes it suitable for measuring the surface temperature distribution of large facilities, such as long-distance power cables, pipelines for transporting liquids and gases, and storage tanks.

Applications

  • Conveyor Belt Fire Detection
  • Duct Fire Detection
  • Power Cable Monitoring for Overheating
  • Bus Bar Monitoring for Overheating
  • Pipeline Leak Detection
  • Furnace Monitoring for Safety and CBM
  • Maximizing VSD Efficiency

 

What Is Distributed Temperature Sensing?

Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) measures temperature distribution over the length of an optical fiber cable using the fiber itself as the sensing element. Unlike traditional electrical temperature measurement (thermocouples & RTD), the length of the fiber optic cable is the temperature sensor. Distributed temperature sensing can provide thousands of accurate and precise temperature measurements over a long distance. Compared to traditional electrical temperature measurements, distributed temperature sensing represent a cost effective method for obtaining accurate and high resolution temperature measurement.

 

System Configuration Example

DTSX3000 / DTSX200 System Configuration Example

Host system is capable of incorporating CENTUM (DCS) with elements including FAST/TOOLS (SCADA), STARDOM (Autonomous Controller) and FA-M3 (Range-free Multi-controller).

 

How Does It Work?

DTSX3000 50km

Yokogawa DTSX3000 measures temperature and distance over the length of an optical fiber using the Raman scatter principle. A pulse of light (laser pulse) launched into an optical fiber is scattered by fiber glass molecules as it propagates down the fiber and exchanges energy with lattice vibrations. As the light pulse scatters down the fiber optic cable, it produces stokes signal (longer wavelength) and anti-stokes (shorter wavelength) signal, of which both signals shifted from the launch of the light source. The intensity ratio of the two signals components depends on the temperature at the position where the Raman scatter is produced. This temperature can thus be determined by measuring the respective intensities of the stokes and anti-stokes signals. Furthermore, part of the scattered light, known as the backscatter, is guided back towards the light source. The position of the temperature reading can thus be determined by measuring the time taken for the backscatter to return to the source.

 

What Is Raman Scatter Principle?

What is Raman Scatter Principle

All light interacts with matter! For example, imagine standing in a pitch black garage with no external light source. Inside this garage is a bright red sports car. Needless to say, you cannot see the sports car or the color of the sports car itself. However, when you turn on the lights to the garage, you can immediately see the light source reflecting the bright red color off the car. The light that is bouncing off the red sports car is only bouncing off the "red" spectrum, therefore, your eyes see the sports car as, well, red.

This phenomena is also true when you shoot a pulse of light (laser pulse) off of a molecule, in this case, the fiber glass molecule in the optical fiber cable. When the light source enters the optical fiber cable, most of the light bounces (backscatter) back unchanged (no change in wavelength). However, a small amount of that light shifted/changed. That shift/change from the light source is called Raman Scatter. Since Raman Scatter is thermally influenced by temperature, the intensity depends on temperature. Distributed temperature sensing is capturing the shift/change from the propagating light pulse and measuring the intensities between the two signal components (stokes and anti-stokes).

 

What Are The Advantages of Using DTS?

  1. Cost! When an application requires hundreds or thousands of sensors to be measured, it becomes very expensive to wire each individual sensor back to a data acquisition station. It is much more cost effective and beneficial to acquire accurate and high resolution temperature measurement using fiber optic cable.
  2. Long distance! It is difficult to measure temperature over a long distance using traditional electrical measurement sensors. Not only can DTS fiber optic cable be deployed over a long distance but it also provides a high resolution profile of the area as well as accurate and precise temperature measurement over that distance.
  3. High electromagnetic noise environment! DTS is isolated from electromagnetic noise because of its optical characteristics. Unlike traditional electrical measurement sensors (thermocouple & RTD) there is no electrical component within the optical fiber, therefore, it is immune to electromagnetic noise.
  4. No knowledge of sensor placement! It is not always possible to identify the correct location to deploy temperature sensors ahead of time. Because of the high spatial resolution along with long distance capability of DTS, engineers can deploy multiple optical fiber along the same area to ensure precise and accurate temperature.

 

DTSX3000 Specifications

Refer to the General Specifications for detailed specifications.

Item Specifications
Distance range suffix code -S -N -M -L
Distributed
temperature
measurement
Distance Measurement distance range (km) 6,10 6,10,16 6, 10, 16,
20, 30
6, 10, 16,
20, 30, 50
Sampling resolution 0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m
Spatial resolution 1 m or less
Temperature Measurement temperature range -200 to +300 °C
Temperature resolution
(10-minutes measurement,
1 σ, without optical switch
Distance range 10 km 16 km 30 km 50 km
Max. Value 0.03 °C 0.06 °C 0.2 °C 2.6 °C
Typical Value 0.02 °C 0.03 °C 0.1 °C 1.6 °C
Sensor optical fiber Optical fiber 50 / 125 μm GI
closed end, non-reflection required
Optical connector E2000 / APC
Interface Serial (RS-232C) 3 ports, non-isolated, RJ45 modular jacks
Full duplex, asynchronous
Serial 1:
Function: Communication (Modbus)
Baud rate: 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 57.6, 115.2 kbps
Serial 2:
Function: Communication (Modbus)
Baud rate: 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 19.2, 38.4 kbps
Serial 3:
Function: Maintenance (Private)
Network Interface LAN 1 port, 10 BASE-T or 100 BASE-TX,
RJ45 modular jacks, automatic negotiation,
automatic MDI, with power switch (ON/OFF)
Display LEDs: HRDY, RDY, LASER ON
Power supply Consumption Operating mode 16 W
Power save mode 2.1 W
Dimensions (W x H x D) 197.8 x 132.0 x 162.2 mm (6 slots width)
Weight 2.5 kg

Specifications

Item Specifications
Model DTOS2 DTOS4 DTOS16
Insertion loss 0.8 db (Typical)
1.4 dB (Max.)
Distributed temperature measurements Measurement
type
Single end, Double end
Sensor optical fibers Optical fiber 50/125 μm GI closed end, non-reflection required
Optical connector E2000/APC
Optical channels 2 channels 4 channels 16 channels
Interface Control Controlled by DTSX3000
Display LEDs: HRDY, RDY, Alarm, Active channel
Power supply Consumption

Operating 4 W
Power save 1 W

Dimensions (W x H x D) 71.65 x 130.0 x 160.3 mm (2 slots width) 
Weight 0.63 kg 0.65 kg 0.75 kg

Note:  As a guideline, the module should be replaced periodically every 4.7, 6, and 9.5 years for continuous operation of 15-second, 20-second and 30-second measurements, respectively.

Regulatory Compliance and Conformity to Standards

Item Specifications
Safety Standards CSA C22.2 No. 61010-1-04
EN 61010-1:2010
EN 61010-2:2010
EMC Standards CE Marking EN 55011:2009 +A1 :2010 Class A Group 1
EN 61000-6-2:2005
EN 61000-3-2:2006 +A1: 2009 +A2: 2009
EN 61000-3-3:2008
RCM EN 55011:2009 +A1 :2010 Class A Group 1
KC Marking Korea Electromagnetic Conformity Standard
Laser safety Class IEC 60825-1/2007. EN60825-1 Class1M
FDA (CDRH) 21CFR Part 1040.10
Standards for Hazardous
Location Equipment
FM Non-Incendive Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D T4
FM 3600-2011
FM 3611-2004
FM 3810-2005
ATEX Type "n" II 3G Ex nA ic [op is] II C T4 Gc X
EN 60079-0:2009, 2012
EN 60079-11:2012
EN 60079-15:2010
EN 60079-28:2007
CSA (Non-Incendive) Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D T4
C22.2 No. 0-10
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 0.4-04
C22.2 No. 213-M1987
TN-078

Note: Under EU legislation, the manufacturer and the authorized representative in EEA (European Economic Area) are indicated below: Manufacturer: YOKOGAWA Electric Corporation (2-9-32 Nakacho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8750, Japan). Authorised representative in EEA: Yokogawa Europe B.V. (Euroweg 2, 3825 HD Amersfoort, The Netherlands).

DTSX3000 Module Base (Required)

The base module for DTSX3000 is used for mounting various function modules including the DTSX3000 distributed temperature sensor, power supply modules, optical switch modules and CPU I/O modules

 

Optical Switch Module (Required)

Installing an optical switch module (2, 4 or 16-channel model) allows monitoring of multiple optical fibers using a single DTSX3000 system.

  • DTOS2: 2 channel Optical Switch Module
  • DTOS4: 4 channel Optical Switch Module
  • DTOS16: 16 channel Optical Switch Module

 

Power Supply Module (Required)

  • NFPW426: 10 to 30 VDC
  • NFPW441: 100 to 120 VAC
  • NFPW442: 220 to 240 VAC
  • NFPW444: 21.6 to 31.2 VDC

 

CPU I/O Module (Optional)

ModuleInstallation of a CPU I/O module allows for additional control capability on the DTSX3000

  • NFCP050: 12 AI, 2 AO, 16 DI, 8 DO, 2 PI, 1 AI for battery monitoring

 

 

 

 

 

DTSX3000

Model and Suffix Codes

    Description
Model DTSX3000 Distributed Temperature Sensor
Suffix Codes -S 10km range
-N 16km range
-M 30km range
-L 50km range
0 Standard type
5 Non explosion proof
E Explosion proof
E E2000/APC
N Basic type
G With ISA Standard G3 option

 

DTSX3000 Module Base (same as DTSX200 Module Base)

Model and Suffix Codes

    Description
Model DTSBM10 Base module for DTSX200
Suffix Codes -N Standard type
0 Standard type
9 EAC mark
N Basic type
G With ISA Standard G3 option

 

Optical Switch Module

Model and Suffix Codes

    Description
Model DTOS2L Optical Switch module 2ch
DTOS4L Optical Switch module 4ch
DTOS16L Optical Switch module 16ch
Suffix
Codes
-N Standard type
5 Non-explosion proof
E Explosion proof
E E2000/APC
N Basic type
G With ISA Standard G3 option

 

Power Supply Module

Model Reference (Input voltage range)
NFPW426 10 to 30 VDC
NFPW441 100 to 120 VAC
NFPW442 220 to 240 VAC
NFPW444 21.6 to 31.2 VDC

The development of unconventional resources, such as heavy oil, oil sands and shale gas has been progressing in line with the increase in global energy demand. DTSX3000 can measure the temperature distribution along an optical fiber with a length of several kilometers are being applied to extraction of unconventional resources. DTSX3000 maximizes oil/gas extraction by providing real time continuous temperature measurement through different injection dynamics. In addition to well optimization, DTSX3000 provides critical data that help monitor and detect wellbore conditions for leaks, water penetration and gas breakthrough. DTSX3000 also provides control capability (measurement of flow, pressure, temperature, valve position, etc.) on top of fiber optic temperature measurement. More importantly, compared to conventional wellbore monitoring technology, DTSX3000 is more robust, cost effective and accurate.

Features Benefits
Ultra low power consumption: 10W Perfect for solar application in remote areas
Operating temperature range: -40 dec C to 65 dec C Perfect for rugged environment without cooling or heating
Fiber optic cable sensor Provides a complete and continuous profile of the downhole well
Control capability with NFCP050 module Monitor and control external devices such as flow, pressure, valve position, temperature, etc.
Wide range of communication protocols Connect to existing DCS, PLC, DAQ and wireless interface
6km optical fiber = 6,000 points! Cost effective way of measuring temperature compared to traditional sensor technology
DTSX200 Oil & Gas 1DTSX200 Oil & Gas 2

 

Yokogawa DTSX3000 can protect the infrastructure of existing power line/cable and reduce cost by monitoring the thermal dynamics of the power transmission and distribution line. By measuring the temperature of the power line, power grid operators can maximize the usable capacity of the power current by avoiding power cable damage and extending the cable life by maintaining optical power current. More importantly, operators can identify hot spots, fire breakout and location of fire along the entire grid. DTSX3000 minimizes the potential power grid network outages and streamlines preventative maintenance process. Because of its immunity to electromagnetic interference, DTSX3000 is ideal for high voltage, high noise environment. DTSX3000 is designed to deploy in the following environments:

  • Underground power cables
  • Subsea power cables
  • Overhead power lines
  • Distribution station
  • Substations
Features Benefits
Isolation from electromagnetic interference Fiber optic is isolated from electrical magnetic current
Real time temperature measurement and monitoring Measure and monitor real time power grid/cable temperature
Measure and monitor multiple power circuits/cables Up to 16 channels of optical switch can be connected
Report and data analysis Access historical data using HTTP, SFTP or web browser
Wide range of communication protocols Connect to existing DCS, PLC, DAQ and wireless interface
6km optical fiber = 6,000 points! Cost effective way of measuring temperature compared to traditional sensor technology
DTSX200 Pipeline 1DTSX200 Pipeline 2

 

Yokogawa DTSX3000 offers superior pipeline leak detection by using fiber optic solutions that provide a complete temperature profile along the entire length of a pipeline. When a leak occurs anywhere along the pipeline, a localized temperature change is produced at that specific location. The optical fiber cable, due to its close proximity to the pipeline, has adequate thermal contact and can provide accurate temperature readings. By compar+7-ing every new temperature profile scan acquired against a reference profile taken under normal conditions, it is possible to detect temperature anomalies which may indicate a possible pipeline failure or external extrusion which might result in or be an actual break. DTSX3000 is designed to deploy in the following applications:

  • Gas pipelines: Ammonia, natural gas, carbon dioxide
  • Liquid pipelines: Crude oil, heated oil, gasoline, PNG, LNG, brine, steam

A leak induced temperature change can be either from a localized cooling or heating. For leaks occurring in pipelines carrying crude oil and other similar products, it is expected that a localized warming will result from a leak as it is often a common practice to transport the crude at a warm temperature to reduce its viscosity.

Leaks in pressurized gas pipelines or those carrying LNG or other cryogenic products, a localized cooling effect will be observed as a result of the Joule Thompson effect, whereby a rapidly expanding gas under pressure lowers the surrounding temperature.

Pipeline Leak Source
Gas Expands, Temperature Decreases
 
Feature Benefits
1m special resolution Identify the exact location of the leak/failure
Up to 0.1°C temperature resolution Possible leak detection within the first 1 minute of occurrence *
Fiber optic cable sensor Real time, accurate and continuous detection of gas, oil and fuel pipeline leaks
Report and data analysis Access historical data using HTTP, SFTP or web browser
Wide range of communication protocols Connect to existing DCS, PLC, DAQ and wireless interface
6km optical fiber = 6,000 points! Cost effective way of measuring temperature compared to traditional sensor technology

* Assuming appropriate scan rate and data refresh intervals are used

 

Early fire detection to critical process and environment is an important component to any safety system. A blazing fire has devastating consequences to important assets, products and most importantly, human lives. Furthermore, the cost of downtime due to fire leads to lost opportunities and costly repairs. Discrete sensor technology often fails due to the surrounding environment conditions such as dust, humidity, heat and corrosion. In addition, it is expensive to maintain a conventional sensor technology due to constant repair. Yokogawa's DTSX3000 is designed to detect fire in critical assets under the most extreme conditions and offers unmatched reliability, performance and cost savings.

Yokogawa's DTSX3000 is designed to deploy in the following fire detection applications:

  • Conveyor belts carrying important goods
  • Tank farms
  • Cable trays
  • Underground tunnels
  • Pipelines (underground, above ground)
  • Nuclear facilities
  • Mining, Refinery
Feature Benefits
1m special resolution Identify the exact location of the fire
Up to 0.1°C temperature resolution Possible fire detection within the first 10 seconds of occurrence *
Fiber optic cable sensor Unlike discrete sensor or IR camera, fiber optic cable eliminates "blind spots"
Coated fiber optic cable Immune to dust, humidity, corrosion and dirt
Report and data analysis Access historical data using HTTP, SFTP or web browser
Wide range of communication protocols Connect to existing DCS, PLC, DAQ and wireless interface
6km optical fiber = 6,000 points! Cost effective way of measuring temperature compared to traditional sensor technology

* Assuming appropriate scan rate and data refresh intervals are used

DTAP3000 Control Visualization Software

The DTSX3000Control Visualization Software (DTAP3000) is used to control the DTSX3000 and visualize DTS data on a PC. In addition, the software displays measurement data graphs and generate LAS format. DTAP3000 allows a user to perform control, monitoring and analysis from anywhere on Ethernet network.

DTSX3000 Control Visualization Software

 

DTAP3000D Data Conversion Software

The Data Conversion Software option (DTAP3000D) allows the DTSX3000 to generate data files in WITSML format. When the DTSX3000 is configured for WITSML conversion using DTAP3000D, then the DTSX3000 will generate data files in WITSML format.

Overview:

A belt conveyor fire detection solution employing the DTSX distributed optical fiber temperature sensor can greatly reduce crises that can threaten a company's survival.

Industries:
Application Note
Overview:

Temperature Monitoring Solution for 
Quick Detection of Fires in Fume Ducts

Overview:

With industrial and economic development comes increasingly large and advanced power plants and factories. Nevertheless, we find many cases where the original cables, cable tunnels, and other components of the power infrastructure have languished under continuous operation.

Overview:

"Improved Detection of Bus Bar Overheating"

 

Customer Concerns

Bus bars for high current power distribution

Bus bars are uninsulated strips of a highly conductive metal such as copper or aluminum. As they have lower electrical resistance than insulated power cables, they can carry large electrical currents and are thus suitable for use in power distributions systems in power plants, substations, factories, and data centers. Bus bars are also used in power distribution boards. Bus bars offer great flexibility as they are made of highly malleable metals that can be easily shaped to suit any number of facility layouts.

Abnormal overheating of bus bars

Bus bars are bolted, clamped, or welded to each other and to other apparatuses. If a bolt or clamp comes lose or a welded joint fails, abnormal heating may occur at that location due to an increase in the electrical resistance. The overheating further increases the electrical resistance and can lead to a burnout or even a fire.

In order to prevent overheating at any of the bus connections, the connections should be inspected on a regular basis. However, as the bus bars are often inside plastic or metal bus ducts and covers, and are often in difficult to access locations, visual inspection can be difficult.

The burning out of a power supply bus bar is a threat to plant safety and can lead to an unplanned shutdown of plant operations. To eliminate such risks and avoid the huge costs of lost production, it is vital to quickly detect and immediately respond to any indication of overheating in a power bus bar.

Abnormal overheating of bus duct

The Solutions and the Benefits

24/7/365 temperature monitoring to detect overheating

Burnouts in a power bus bar can be prevented by quickly and accurately detecting abnormal rises in temperature and locating the hot spots. As bus bars are surrounded by strong electric fields, conventional electric sensors such as thermocouple thermometers are not suitable for this purpose. Bus bars also sometimes follow complicated paths through plant structures and other types of buildings and may have a number of blind spots that cannot be readily imaged using thermal imaging cameras.

The Yokogawa DTSX is a unique and innovative temperature monitoring solution that uses an optical fiber cable as a temperature sensor. Since the sensor is not affected by electromagnetic noise, the DTSX is able to monitor distribution of temperature in units of 1 meter accuracy under a strong electric field. By quickly detecting overheating and pinpointing the location of a hotspot, the DTSX ensures that any problem can be responded to immediately, before it leads to a costly and expensive plant shutdown.
The optical fiber cable can be installed directly on a bus bar and on the surface of a bus duct or cover.

Efficient inspection inside bus ducts

Thanks to its ability to continuously detect abnormal rises in temperature and pinpoint hot spots even when a bus bar is located inside a bus duct, the DTSX is also useful in maintenance applications such as locating bolts that need to be tightened.

The benefits

  • Accurate temperature monitoring under a strong electric field
  • Flexible sensor cable for complex extended structure
  • Quick detection with abnormal location to prevent burnout
  • Condition based inspection work by temperature changes
Cable laying example for bus duct

How DTSX Works

Measuring the intensity of Raman scattered light
Using pulses of laser light beamed through an optical fiber cable, the DTSX is able to detect temperature-dependent variations in signal frequency that are the result of a phenomenon known as Raman scattering that occurs along the entire length of the optical fiber cable, and it also can determine the locations of those temperature readings using light that is bounced back (backscattering) to the source.

Example: Along a 6,000 meter optical fiber cable, nearly 6,000 measurement points
By measuring how long it takes light to make a round trip back to the source (backscattering), the DTSX is able to calculate the location for each temperature reading. Abnormalities can be located with a spatial resolution of just one meter.

​​​​​​

Overview:

Reactor/Furnace Wall Healthiness Monitoring with a Fiber Optical Temperature Sensor

Application Note
Overview:

Temperature Monitoring Solution for Maximum VSD Operating Efficiency
 

Overview:

Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.

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