Most zinc are produced at hydrometallurgically, where a high-grade zinc product can be obtained and valuable metals mixed in the raw material can be recovered. In the hydrometallurgy, the raw material of zinc concentrate is roasted and then dissolved in sulfuric acid to remove impurities. The process called leaching and pH control of the leachate is important. The leachate contains gypsum and impurities that may cause scaling on electrodes. As a result, it interfered with stable pH measurement and required frequent cleaning at least once a week. A pH analyzer with air jet cleaning system provides continuous cleaning and therefore can reduce maintenance frequency to once every one or two months.
- Ensures stable and continuous pH measurement
- Reduces operating costs
- Eliminates manual cleaning work by hand
Roasted concentrate sent from a roasting furnace, is dissolved in diluted sulfuric acid (spent electrolyte) in a dissolving tank.
ZnO + H2SO4 -> ZnSO4 + H2O
In addition, some iron and other material contained in the calcine are dissolved. Therefore, these impurities are removed by precipitation by adding manganese, lime or other additives.
FeO + Additive -> Fe2O3 (precipitation)
pH control is important to allow zinc to dissolve fully and impurities to precipitate maximally. The leachate is filtered by a filter press to remove impurities and the filtrate is fed to an electrolytic bath where zinc is electrolytically produced.
4-wire pH measurement system (with jet cleaning system)
|FLXA402 4-wire pH/ORP converter|
|Power supply:||90 to 264 V AC, 50/60 Hz|
|Power consumption:||35VA maximum|
|Air for jet cleaning|
|Air pressure:||200 to 400 kPa|
|Consumption:||100 to 300 Nl/min|
- Continuous air jet cleaning
Since the leachate is a strongly acid solution, its pH value is not affected by air cleaning. This allows measurement and cleaning simultaneously.
- Other applications
This cleaning system can be used for other smelting processes of copper, manganese, sadmium, etc.
|Measurement point:||Leachate in the dissolving tank|
|pH value:||pH 1.5 ± 0.2|
|Zinc:||Approx. 160 g/l|
|Sulfuric acid:||2 to 3 g/l|
Before air jet cleaning system was introduced, the cleaning work by hand had been required at least once a week. Continuous air jet cleaning using the submersion holder with jet cleaning system, has reduced the maintenance frequency to once a month or two months.
To ensure stable measurement, the pH sensor uses a Teflon liquid junction, where the KCl outflow is higher than that of ceramic junction.
The FU20 and FU24, all-in-one pH and ORP, sensors show how Yokogawa applies the motto "Simple is best" to sensor technology.
Reusable SMART adapter, requiring only the analog sensor to be disposed of when it reaches the end of its lifetime. With the SENCOM 4.0 platform, Yokogawa delivers reduced costs and waste while contributing to its long-term business goals of a sustainable future for all.
The FLEXA™ series analyzers are modular-designed analyzers used for continuous online measurements in industrial installations. They offer single or multi-sensor measurement.
pH and ORP meters, analyzers and transmitters are used for continuous process monitoring of pH and ORP to ensure water/product quality, monitor effluent discharge, batch neutralization, pulp stock, scrubbers, cooling towers, chemical, water/wastewater treatment and many other applications.
pH electrodes and sensors are the sensing portions of a pH measurement. Various installation options including retractable, flow thru, immersion, and direct insertion. Proper pH electrode/sensor selection is critical for optimal measurement results.