可調諧二極管激光光譜儀

可調諧二極管激光光譜儀(TDLS)是一款激光氣體分析儀,具備快速更新光學分析功能。TDLS支持在線提取,可以測量製程氣體、燃氣,進行雜質分析、傳輸監管和確保安全。

在化工、電力和煉油行業中,橫河電機的TDLS技術在2012年EPRI研究報告和API556標準中被公認為是安全和環保燃燒應用所需的技術。

  • 橫河電機的新TDLS™8000功能強大,將諸多先進工業特性集成於一台耐用設備中。其平台設計適用於現場測量,無需進行樣品抽取和樣品處理。

  • 無需採樣,隻需將法蘭安裝在管道一側,安裝成本減半,同時保持高速測量/高速響應。可輕鬆替換現有設備。

TruePeak可調諧二極管激光光譜儀發射激光通製待測氣體,通製測量被吸收的激光量來分析氣體濃度。由於傳感器不接觸工業氣體且無活動部件,使得平均無故障時間(MTBF)較長,從而降低了長期擁有成本(LTCO)。

火焰加熱器是烴加工和發電等工業製程中的組成部分。加熱器經製專門設計,使燃料和空氣反應產生極高的氣體溫度,然後通製熱交換器將能量傳導給高度易燃的製程流體。火焰加熱器消耗大量燃料,產生大量排放物,對人員和工廠構成潛在的安全隱患。

橫河電機的TDLS分析儀有助於控制火焰加熱器更準確、可靠地燃燒。在低製剩空氣(LEA)級别使用火焰加熱器時會帶來可觀的回報。在LEA燃燒控制中,消耗的燃料少,且可通製未使用的製剩空氣冷卻燃燒產物。

這些功效的成本利益相當可觀,隻要在燃料方面節省一個百分點,每年就可以節省數萬甚至數十萬美元。控制空氣水平剛好超製不完全燃燒起始點,也可以實現“清潔燃燒”,幫助工廠滿足環境排放要求。這尤其能夠減少NOx的排放。

摘要:

The ammonia (NH3) gas is injected to remove the NOx and thus reduce the NOx concentration in the stack flue gas. With conventional NH3 analyzers that perform measurements indirectly, NH3 concentrations are obtained through a sampling system. Therefore, there are problems with the maintenance and running costs of the sampling system, and time delays in measurement. The TDLS200 Laser Analyzer is the solution to all these problems.

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摘要:

In maintaining and managing industrial plants, monitoring waste water pH/ORP is both a legal obligation and an unavoidable necessity for protecting the environment. Monitoring without an attentive eye can lead to severe consequences.

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摘要:

Considering safety and environmental issues such as combustion efficiency and decreasing NOX and CO in exhaust gas, it has become important to control O2 concentration in garbage incineration processes.

摘要:

H2S management of exhaust gas in black liquor recovery boilers is required to meet an environmental regulations.

摘要:

Cement is made by heating calcareous and argillaceous materials to a temperature between 1100 and 1500 °C. As this process uses massive amounts of energy, various energy saving measures are taken, including the measurement of oxygen concentrations in exhaust gases to control combustion. 

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摘要:

Reduction of air pollutant emissions is essential to protecting the environment and this is an issue that concerns all industries. Efforts are being made to reduce the emission of harmful substances from municipal refuse incinerators by measuring concentrations of components such as NOx, SO2, CO2, and CO in their exhaust gases.

摘要:

Spectrometric technology can assess many critical characteristics about products, but it has limits. It can be challenging to determine when the line has been crossed

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摘要:

SABIC is a global manufacturer of polymer resins, film and sheet products, special additives, and chemical intermediates. With operations in more than 50 countries, the company has an enormous variety of processes and plant designs to make its range of products. With so many plants, processes and products, there are frequent opportunities to make improvements with hardware and instrumentation.

A case in point is a reaction process in which oxygen gas is sparged into the reactor, and there is a resulting outlet gas stream. Proper and timely measurement of the oxygen content in this outlet stream is of key importance for reaction control and safety. Reaction progress, control of raw materials input, and reaction sequencing are all affected and dependent on the value of the oxygen concentration reading. The reactor contents and outlet stream can also be in the flammable range depending on conditions, so safety and process considerations call for continuous monitoring of the vent line contents.

A Two-Fold Measuring Function

The safety considerations of monitoring oxygen content in the vent line are very important. As long as the oxygen level remains below a limit, the mixture can be kept below the flammable range and will not undergo combustion. If the process allows the concentration to exceed this limit, it shuts off the oxygen flow to the sparging headers. But this safety consideration is only one of the reasons the measurement is important.

Secondly, the amount of oxygen bubbling through the liquid is an indicator of what is happening in the reaction. Oxygen consumption depends on reaction chemistry and it is a direct indication of the status of the process. Accurate reading of overhead oxygen content is especially important for control of reactant addition and temperature control.

The Challenges of Consistent Measurement

Technologies to measure oxygen in a gas stream are not new, and there are countless applications in chemical manufacturing and other industries where oxygen levels need to be monitored. Combustion processes of any size invariably use some type of oxygen sensor in the flue gas stream to maintain efficiency.

SABIC’s situation proved to be more challenging than most typical applications due to a mix of specific conditions. For many years operators struggled while working with paramagnetic and electrochemical cell sensors due to degradation of the cells, moisture and debris from the process. These sensors are both very common and used in a wide variety of oxygen measuring applications, but they have some key limitations that became apparent when reviewing this process.

Paramagnetic analyzers are sensitive to vibrations and cross-contamination from other gases. Although the application for these reactors does not call for measuring trace amounts of oxygen, there are also sensitivity issues at very low concentrations. Electrochemical cells should be replaced routinely and have sensitivity to different pressures, temperatures and cross-contamination.

Our sampling systems experienced high failure rates with electrochemical components including sampling lines being plugged from the process, filter element clogging, and failing pumps. Moreover, since an individual test during production took more than two minutes, a possibility existed that a climbing oxygen level may not be identified soon enough.

Paramagnetic and electrochemical cell oxygen analyzers have a three-month verification frequency, and the manufacturers recommended maintaining this regimen precisely. Although the testing does not take long, production was delayed in some situations while performing the verification. Delays and Emergency work due to the failures of these types of analyzers resulted in a significant amount of lost production. Due to these and other issues, a more robust oxygen analyzer technology was required.

Tuning in to Laser Technologies

One technology used commonly in combustion processes is tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy, capable of detecting and measuring a variety of gasses, including oxygen, within many contexts. Theoretically, it has the capability to measure oxygen when mixed with toluene, but there was some concern about it being practical for this specific application.

A TDL analyzer sends a beam with a controlled wavelength range through the gas being analyzed to determine which products are present based on which specific wavelengths of light are absorbed. The problem in this case related to the duct size, because the transmitter and receiver should be a minimum distance apart to ensure adequate absorption.

The duct diameter here was less than half the normally recommended distance, so there was some concern as to whether it would deliver its full degree of accuracy, or even work at all. SABIC’s engineers felt the potential benefits to be gained were more than enough to justify installing one analyzer as a test. The performance would be easy to evaluate since the existing sensors were still fully operational and working in parallel.

After two weeks of operation, it was clear the Yokogawa TDL analyzers were performing very well (Figure 1). It was true that they were not delivering the full degree of precision they were capable of due to the short scanning distance, but the precision was high enough to satisfy the needs of the process.

Figure 1. While the duct size for this application was smaller than is usually recommended for TDL analyzers, the tunable diode lasers reliably provided readings with a high enough degree of accuracy for the application, while eliminating the maintenance problems associated with the earlier sensing technologies.

Once installed, the new analyzers proved very reliable and required far less validation and maintenance than the earlier technologies. One issue proved to be debris carried into the duct from the process blocking the light transmission path between the transmitter and receiver. Adjustments to a nitrogen purging system and better control of the process itself minimized this effect, leading to virtually trouble-free operation.

Facilitating the Safety Function

All of these TDL analyzers have been installed for over two years now, with no failures due to the TDLA’s to date. Some units were outfitted with the Yokogawa TDLS200 analyzer, while others were outfitted with the Yokogawa TDLS8000 models. There are other manufacturers of this technology but we chose Yokogawa for this application.

There have been occasional visibility blockage incidents, but these are rare after adjustments to the purge system. Overall, these TDL analyzers have supported higher levels of production, and added another layer of protection to the unit.

摘要:

With fired heaters, users hope to get greater efficiency and reduced emissions but often are disappointed. Given the number of fired heaters operating every day and their importance in the process industries, any improvements realized across the board will have huge impacts. More units can reach their potential with some simple changes in work practices and technology upgrades.

摘要:

In recent years, shale gas extraction technology has made rapid progress, inducing a shale gas revolution mainly in the USA. Thus, the need for analysis of hydrocarbon gases, including natural gas, is expected to grow rapidly. Traditionally gas chromatography has been used for the analysis of hydrocarbon gases; it can accurately measure the concentration of each hydrocarbon component in a sample of natural gas.

摘要:

Combustion furnaces such as heating furnaces and boilers in plants include various sizes and types, and serve as energy sources, that is, they are cores in all production activities. Because a large amount of fuel such as gas or fuel oil is consumed in plants, their combustion efficiency directly affects the performance and running cost of the plants. 

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