In an evolving, competitive industry, chemical producers are constantly raising the bar by adopting disruptive technologies to optimize productivity, time to market, energy efficiency, and reliability all while closely managing CAPEX and OPEX, compliance, risks, safety, and security.
Petrochemical companies’ needs are extremely diverse. To come out ahead in today’s highly competitive marketplace, producers are striving to improve quality and productivity. Yokogawa provides tailor-made solutions for these needs based on its long and wide-ranging experience in this field.
Yokogawa has long served customers in the specialty and fine chemicals market. With a market leading batch solution that offers the best in class reliability and flexibility as well as industry experts who understand the complex requirements in designing a batch solution, you can be assured that in your partnership with Yokogawa you will have a system that will enable you to produce products that meet your customers’ needs in the future while maintaining safety and regulatory compliance.
To combat global warming, the production and consumption of biofuels is on the rise around the world. As a leading provider of measurement and control solutions to the chemical, oil, and other industries, Yokogawa has developed technologies that can be used to ensure the reliable and efficient production of bioethanol and other types of renewable fuels.
The rapid expansion of the chemical industry in recent years has created new challenges for chemical plants. In order to adapt to the demand of the growing chemical market, industry executives must utilize new technologies, resources, and solutions to remain competitive. In response to this growth, Yokogawa has identified four key trends transforming the chemical industry and offers solutions for companies to achieve success in this evolving market.
1. Digital Transformation Opportunities Await Realization
The remarkable pace of technology is creating significant changes and opportunities in the business environment. Yet industry surveys show that less than 5% of chemical companies have successfully executed a digital transformation. Business leaders are eager to unlock the value of digital but are unclear about how to approach and execute.
Organizational strategy is built with business improvement objectives and outcomes that are implemented through a combination of people, process, and technology. Digital transformation is a journey that integrates a wide variety of applications, technologies, and business processes in line with a company’s aims.
Yokogawa delivers value to the process industry by focusing on smart manufacturing; optimizing the supply chain; improving the decision-making process; changing the culture, organization, and mindset; creating new business models, and generating further revenue.
Yokogawa co-innovates with customers by:
- Identifying where they are in the digital transformation journey
- Defining potential value creation opportunities
- Assembling a team of professionals with deep chemical domain knowledge
- Deploying solutions that maximize efficiency and increase profits
2. Availability and Uptime are Linked to Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Unplanned shutdowns and outages continue to upset operational performance. The loss of production, waste of energy, and other inefficiencies directly impact the bottom line. Root causes can range from aging equipment to inadequate maintenance workflow, and limited operations personnel expertise. Chemical companies are seeking to achieve the highest levels of asset integrity and availability, while continuously driving down the total cost of ownership (TCO).
Plant safety, availability, cost efficiency, and operational excellence are ingrained in all aspects of Yokogawa. It is in our products, services, mindset, and culture. Yokogawa’s reliability, availability and maintenance consultants combine global best practices with a human performance approach and are enabled by technology applied across the organization. From process controls systems to instruments, analyzers, and plant asset management, Yokogawa works with customers to deploy asset performance management solutions that maximize plant uptime and availability.
3. An Aging Workforce is Affecting Operations
The effects of an aging workforce are beginning to show in plant operations. One major chemical company analyzed their demographics and found that they would soon lose 75% of their operating staff due to retirement.
Yokogawa offers Modular Procedural Automation (MPA), Operator Training Simulators (OTS), and other operational support solutions. As experienced operators begin to retire, some procedures with manual intervention are at risk of being lost. Implementing modular automation and providing training solutions to reshape a new workforce is critical to mitigating risks. Yokogawa solutions reproduce actual plant behaviors that provide realistic operations training. Virtual plant training gives customers the knowledge of how to best respond to various emergency situations, which contributes to reductions in time and cost, while improving control strategy, productivity, and efficiency.
4. Increased Risk of Cyber Attacks
Industrial producers around the world face cyber threats in this increasingly connected world, which pose a pervasive threat to safety and system availability. Without a perpetually strong cybersecurity solution, plants and corporate networks are targets for hackers. Solutions: Yokogawa, in partnership with Cisco, provides industry leading SecurePlant™ cybersecurity services to the chemical industry. These cyber security services help customers implement proper security solutions for their plants to ensure safe operations and reduce risks. This end-to-end cyber security approach provides effective measures that also deliver increased business agility and risk awareness, decreased operational costs, and reduced downtime.
Yokogawa’s Global Success
Yokogawa control solutions are deployed at over 7,300 chemical facilities around the world. Global chemical companies partner with Yokogawa as a full scope automation partner to achieve operational excellence, reliability, and safe operations. Yokogawa is committed to delivering solutions across the entire plant lifecycle that meet the evolving needs of the market.
“Yokogawa’s CENTUM Batch is used to automate a wide range of Reichhold’s batch processes and multiproduct/multipath processes, thereby demonstrating ease of use, outstanding reliability, and sophisticated functionality. Using the CENTUM Batch package, Reichhold has reduced lifecycle engineering costs, shortened time to market, improved plant performance, and kept unexpected control failures to a minimum. Reichhold has now standardized all of its process control systems in the U.S. with Yokogawa’s CENTUM system because of its high reliability. Yokogawa hardware is very reliable. The availability of more than 99.99% is really amazing.”
Roja Challa, Process Control System Advisor, Reichhold
“The Iowa Fertilizer Company would like to recognize all the hard work and continuous efforts of the Yokogawa team to get an OTS system ready for use at IFCo. We want to especially commend the dedicated time to get the system to a point where our IFCo team can test as it is being engineered. Also, IFCo commends the Yokogawa team for implementing an enormous amount of DCS-ESD (Emergency Shutdown) items that were not in the initial scope of the project but were made to IFCo’s specifications. This will help IFCo continue making forward progress to fulfill the mission effectively. It has also allowed DCS-ESD designers to review and change all of the findings discovered through the OTS, leading to an important saving of time on the future DCS-ESD SAT tasks to be performed.”
Shawn Rana, President, Iowa Fertilizer Company
“Making use of Yokogawa’s different control platforms having unique specifications but the same well known ‘look and feel’ operator interfaces allows [Safripol] to avoid extensive operator training. This provides both the right control philosophy on the plant floor and makes use of the existing management information software tools. The changeover was virtually bumpless.”
Mike Dukas, Process Control Engineer, Safripol
- PRM allows a preventive maintenance approach where maintenance can be scheduled and performed before a field device fails.
- Exaquantum gathers plant data from the CENTUM VP to generate a variety of reports on the polymerization process.
Kuraray Engineering provides IoT big data analysis solution in collaboration with Yokogawa.
Collaborative process data analysis achieved a high level of quality stabilization at a customer site.
Osaka Gas Chemicals selected Yokogawa to solve long-standing problem at carbon fiber manufacturing process.
Osaka Gas Chemicals established unique problem-solving method using Yokogawa's process data analytics solution.
Nippon Sanso Vietnam JSC (NSVN) equipped a digitalized supply-chain management system to optimize efficiency of industrial gases delivery.
The ODMS (Order delivery management system) was rapidly developed using the DevOps agile approach in collaboration with NSVN and Yokogawa.
- Sumitomo Seika achieved the quality stabilization by cross-department project.
- The fusion of process knowledge and data analysis technology was a key to the success.
- Based on a careful review of all operational procedures and operator roles and configured new SOPs in Exapilot.
- As a result, SFC has been able to reduce operator workload, improve product quality, and reduce production losses.
Operator Training Simulator helps improve human reliability in a young plant of PetroVietnam Ca Mau Fertilizer.
PVCFC and Yokogawa implemented OTS for third-party control and safety system as a team.
- Stable operation and proactive maintenance were realized at new coal-chemical plant in China.
- Yokogawa engineers ensured a successful and efficient commissioning and startup.
- Legacy System Replaced with Yokogawa CENTUM VP and ProSafe-RS at PTA plant in Indonesia.
- PID parameters imported to CENTUM VP without complex calculations.
- Operational Excellence by Asset Maximization, Utilizing Yokogawa's DCS, SIS, Analyzers, and Field Instruments.
- The CENTUM VP PCS and ProSafe-RS SIS were integrated using the same engineering environment.
- Nearly 60 gas chromatographs and a large number of other types of analyzers in several analyzer houses.
The AFCO project is a showcase of the good coordination between Yokogawa Middle East, Yokogawa Thailand, Yokogawa Singapore, and Yokogawa Electric Corporation. Yokogawa Middle East and Yokogawa headquarters both were involved in the project execution.
- Yokogawa provides CENTUM CS 3000, Exaquantum and PRM solutions for China's largest refinery/petrochemical complex.
- Process data management by Exaquantum is a key issue in the petrochemical complex.
- Using the CENTUM CS 3000 system, many kinds of plant key performance indexes are calculated and analyzed to produce further improvements.
- During plant start-up, PRM helps the customer's engineers perform all the loop checks.
- Main instrument vendor (MIV) concept was applied in this project to reduce the total project engineering cost.
- This consisted DCS, SIS, all instruments, control valves and tank gauging system under working with project management consultant (PMC) and EPC.
- Integration of CENTUM CS 3000 with ProSafe-RS improves plant safety and reliability.
- Yokogawa's PRM package manages more than 500 HART field devices including control valves.
- CENTUM CS 3000 production control system contributes to smooth HDPE production.
- The challenge for this replacement project was in completing the work and starting up the new CS 3000 system as soon as possible, keeping downtime to a minimum.
- CS 3000 efficiently controls and monitors coal gasification process.
- Once an operator selects "Start", the necessary instructions are sent to all plant equipment via the sequence control.
- Rapid Implementation of Integrated CENTUM CS 3000 and ProSafe-RS.
- The highly reliable CENTUM CS 3000 system has also helped TOL maintain high productivity at this plant.
- Migration from Micro-XL and CENTUM CS 1000 to CENTUM CS 3000 Improves Reliability.
- Operations at this plant, which runs more than 330 days per year, are carefully managed by the CENTUM CS 3000 DCS and the CS Batch package.
- A certified emergency shutdown system
- Substantial reduction in maintenance work
- System configuration with reduced footprint
- System scalability
- CS Batch is used to automate a wide range of Reichhold's batch processes and multi-product/multi-path processes.
- Using PRM, process engineers can immediately find out the status of every field device without having to do an onsite inspection.
- Meet the IEC 61508/JIS C 0508 functional safety standards
- Proactively introduce leading edge technologies
- Accommodate the plant licensors' safety, reliability, and maintainability requirements
- Improve the monitoring and operation functions of the emergency shutdown system
Samsung Petrochemical Co. Ltd. (SPCL), a major Korean petrochemical company, produces 700,000 tons per year of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) at its Daesan plant. PTA, a white powder substance that is produced by oxidizing and refining para-xylene, is a precursor to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a polyester material that has excellent thermal resistance and wear resistance and is widely used as a substitute for natural cotton fibers and in film packaging, beverage bottles, tire cords, paints, adhesives, and other applications.
- Installation of Exaquantum PIMS package improves efficiency of process data management.
- Improve quality and yield through proactive maintenance of plant assets.
- Introduction of CENTUM CS 3000 maximizes productivity and improves product quality at special polymer plant.
- A major improvement as a result of this project is that butadiene monomer recovery efficiency jumped huge.
- CENTUM CS 3000 distributed control system to control the ethanol plant and it's utility boilers
- Batch processes that require careful automated control for maximum efficiency and product quality
- CENTUM VP Batch replaces the legacy system and improves production efficiency in the acrylic plant.
- CENTUM VP Batch capability can handle the recipe management to Batch report handling and unit management.
- CENTUM VP Batch package improves productivity.
- Reduction of operator workload and safe operation.
- PetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemicals Polyethylene Plant system migration.
- The revamp included the challenging creation of function design specifications (FDS) as well as FAT and SAT.
- Highly reliable CENTUM CS 3000 replaces legacy system and automates batch plant operation.
- Working together, Hanwha Chemical and Yokogawa Korea project personnel completed this work on time and on schedule.
- Yokogawa provides STARDOM and FAST/TOOLS for biomass pilot plant.
- FAST/TOOLS is an "all in one" SCADA solution that functionsa a data historian.
- As the main automation contractor (MAC) for this plant construction project, Yokogawa Brazil engineered, installed, and commissioned an integrated control and instrumentation solution
- Yokogawa Brazil completed the commissioning of these systems ahead of schedule and the production of green polymer was started just one week later
- Implementation of multivariable optimizing controllers and robust quality estimators within a record short period
- 3% rise expected in CCR feed amount
- Fieldbus technology introduced to realize predictive and preventive maintenance.
- ISAE to improve the reliability of diagnosis and parameter setting, utilizing data collected by PRM.
- Kaneka Corporation has urgently needed to implement countermeasures that would reduce this facility's energy costs.
- Optimization of control strategy helps BTG plant save energy and operate more efficiently.
- Yokogawa's CENTUM VP and PRM improve efficiency at new nylon plant in Thailand.
- At the plant startup stage, PRM was used together with FieldMate to thoroughly check all loops.
- At the company's Ulsan resin plant, six Exaquantum servers were connected to CENTUM CS 3000 and other vendor's systems.
- KKPC needed to expand its SBC capabilities and improve production efficiency at its plants.
- CENTUM CS 3000 and Exaquantum PIMS improve production efficiency at Chinese synthetic rubber plant.
- Exaquantum provides data on long-term trends needed to make improvements to plant processes.
- Single 'look and feel' operator interface for the DCS and NCS
- Fast and controllable integration cycle
- High speed hybrid compressor control solution
- Reduced OPEX for the compressor operation by replacing old and obsolete PLCs with a modern hybrid control platform
- Up to 90% of all manual tasks can now be carried out automatically.
- Increasing productivity by means of partially automated start-up and load change procedures.
- 16,000 FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices
- Main Automation Contractor (MAC)
- DCS anywhere concept integration with site SAP system
- Long term maintenance contract
- Sustainable development
- All logistics of raw materials, intermediate products and final products are controlled and managed by MAS.
- MAS enables Operational Excellence with its seamless interface to enterprise resource planning system.
- Provided a better way to transfer its manufacturing know-how to the next generation
- Reduced energy consumption and operator workload by implementing Advanced Process Control (APC) and Advanced Operator Assistance (AOA)
- Implementation of AOA package for improved grade-change operation
- Dramatically reduced operators' workload and transient products, as well as sharable operation know-how
- The work was based on a preceisely formulated roadmap with detailed checklists for every control cabinet, process station, and network component.
- The seamless use of the same HMI for both PCS and SIS, and improved safety and integrity.
- Exapilot automates comlex and non-routine decoking process of NCUs.
- Operator workload has been drastically reduced.
- One day switchover
- Productivity improvement and cost effectiveness achievement
Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corp. was looking for a system that could be easily adopted to its plant architecture. For the following reasons, Yokogawa's STARDOM system with the FCN autonomous controller and the VDS Web-based SCADA software was selected as their control system for a Water-18O plant and other facilities.
- Exapilot was built up as e-SOP system based on the standard operating procedures and the know-how of experienced operators.
- e-SOP system improved the quality and productivity in the performance chemical plant in China.
- Easy-to-understand sequence programs' creation
- An entire programming system built by operators
- Operator workloads reduction
As the demand for food is increasing worldwide, fertilizers are playing an essential role in improving agricultural productivity. OCI Nitrogen (hereinafter OCI) is a leading producer of mineral fertilizers and the world's largest producer of melamine, which is used to make adhesives and resins for a wide range of applications, such as furniture panels, laminate flooring, coatings, paints, and plastics.
Tsurumi Soda Corporation,Yokohama,Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan
- IFCo chose Omegaland operator training system to make ready for a flawless and safe plant start-up.
- Omegaland is contributing to operator training prior to completion of the greenfield fertilizer plant.
Yokogawa CENTUM VP and SIS were selected for the Evonik Oxeno's BTX facility expansion project.
CENTUM provides the operational transparency, and more efficient diagnosis of compressors which are the heart of the facility.
Yokogawa's network healthiness check service helped the customer identify what they need to protect against cyber-attacks.
By “visualizing” network traffic in control system, the customer was able to detect unauthorized communication in their system.
- A Japanese petrochemical plant leverages FDT/DTM-compliant intelligent field devices and Yokogawa's PRM asset management system for maintenance efficiency.
- The customer aims to improve maintenance efficiency further by introducing condition-based maintenance (CBM).
- Yokogawa assisted in the project implementation by providing design review, calculation modifications, pre-commissioning, training of operators and engineers, commissioning and post implementation review.
- Shell Global Solutions and Shell Deer Park Management were completely satisfied with the way the project was implemented and with the results achieved.
- The Advanced Process Control application implemented on the Scotford MEG unit helped control the plant with less variation, resulting in maximized TEG production and reductions in overall steam consumption.
- TEG production increases were greater than originally estimated and the prices for steam and TEG used in the post-implementation study were reduced significantly.
- TOK decided to start local production of high-quality photoresist for semiconductor manufacturing near its customers in Taiwan.
- The MES with traceability comparable with pharmaceutical manufacturing is one of the factors to win the trust of its customers.
- Yokogawa's operational performance program bench mark service enhanced the automation performance at the chemical plant.
- Operator stress was dramatically reduced by identifying the causes of excessive manual interventions.
- Yokogawa joined forces with Air Liquide to co-innovate the step-by-step revamping plan based on Air Liquide's specific requirements.
- Customer was satisfied that Yokogawa was able to deliver its solutions on time and on budget.
- FDT compliant FieldMate manages a wide variety of digital process instruments of multi-vendors.
- The SNF engineers can manage the complete lifecycle of assets and configure devices by using FieldMate.
- Kuraray EVAL and Yokogawa prepared carefully for the expansion and modernization of the CENTUM system.
- Management of 400+ fieldbus instruments by Yokogawa's PRM plant resource manage also helped the project to proceed smoothly.
The TC series of temperature controllers is perfect for controlling the heating temperature of sealing parts and the temperature of sealing rolls (pre-heating) in a variety of different wrapping machinery.
In the plants of food and beverage manufacturers, there are times when monitoring and recording of production equipment is necessary inside clean rooms. This is an introduction to monitoring and recording in clean rooms using paperless recorders.
Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.
In order to reduce emissions of air pollutants such as sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), power plants have installed flue gas desulfurization systems known as scrubbers.
In flue gas desulfurization systems that use magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) slurry, the consumption of the desulfurization agent (Mg(OH)2) is controlled by using online pH analyzers. A great concern in the pH measurement is heavy staining of the pH electrodes by the Mg(OH)2 slurry. To ensure accurate measurement, frequent cleaning of the electrodes with an acid is required, adding to both maintenance workload and cost.
Control of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration at a salt dissolver where solid salt is dissolved in water, is highly important because of the electrolysis efficiency. A conventional way of measuring the concentration of supersaturated NaCl solution had been performed by using non-contact type sensors (e.g., γ-ray density meter) since NaCl, impurities, and precipitates are in the solution.
There are various methods for continuous fabric dyeing as well as dye fixing. When dye is directly applied, steaming (heat treatment) is required. At present the pad-steam method is widely used for continuous dyeing. To ensure stable product quality, the humidity in the steamer is kept at a constant level.
Caustic soda is an important basic material in the chemical industry and is mainly produced by the electrolysis of soda. In the electrolysis process to make concentrated caustic soda, the DM8 Liquid Density Meter ensures high product quality through accurate measurement of liquid density.
Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.
Electrolysis plants create hydrogen and chlorine from a brine solution. Chlorine gas generated from the anolyte of the electrolysis tank generally contains between 0.5 to 2.0 vol% H2O. The sample is then cooled and filtered to remove brine, subsequently coming out as wet chlorine gas. The wet gas is sent to a drying tower where it is treated with sulfuric acid to get moisture down to the ppm level.
Many different types of gases are consumed in industries as varied as chemicals, food & beverages, and medical. These gases are normally delivered in liquid form by trucks and dispensed at the customer site. Although the flow volume of cryogenic liquefied gas is used for billing purposes, it is not easy to accurately measure this because the gas is always at saturation temperatures.
- In the YS170 and SLPC, single-element control needs to be configured within the user program.
- The YS1700, however, offers the primary direct mode so that the user program can switch on and off single-element control by changing a parameter.
For safe and efficient operation, the quality of feedwater, steam, and condensate in boiler plants must be controlled and maintained in the most favorable conditions.
- Effeciently controls the inlet valve and blow-off valve when the compressor starts and stops.
- During steady operation, controls the inlet valve so that the amount of discharged compressed air becomes constant (flow control)
- Surging: Load decreases, the amount of discharge flow and pressure drop, and a limit is exceeded, possibly destroying the compressor.
- Emergency interlock circuits for petrochemical plants and other facilities must be independent of the main control system.
- The YS80 Rack Instrument interfaces not only with field devices and upstream control systems, but also with emergency interlock circuits guarding against process abnormalities.
With industrial and economic development comes increasingly large and advanced power plants and factories. Nevertheless, we find many cases where the original cables, cable tunnels, and other components of the power infrastructure have languished under continuous operation.
Fired heaters are used for various processes in oil refining and petrochemical plants.
- Temperature monitoring is required to prevent wind-fueled fire hazards.
- The measuring points are up to 600 meters away from the control room.
Both bulk and finished inventories are stored in distributed tank farm remote from the site operations. These are difficult to instrument due to the infrastructure cost involved. These are then monitored daily by patrol rounds. While effective, this method does require a large skilled labor force to monitor all of tanks. This can impose an additional risk when the stored medium is of a hazardous nature.
- Daily manual reading of pressure and temperature gauges with report by phone.
- The customer wants to change measurement from off-line to on-line.
- Cabling for wired transmitters in huge plants (up to 300 meters long) is expensive.
Install a YTMX580 on the side of the rotating furnace that can wirelessly transmit measured values from multiple temperature sensors.
- Temperature is monitored to maintain consistency of the viscous fiber entering the drum.
- Existing system requires manual temperature readings.
- Wired temperature measurement is not available because the tank is rotating.
- Wireless temperature measurement
Gateway x1, transmitter (YTA) x1, repeater x2 (The 2 repeaters are for redundancy)
- Extended antenna to circumvent obstacles and improve the radio path for stable measurement (communication was unstable when the height of the antenna was low).
ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters with orifice plates allow:
- No cabling installations or maintenance.
- Small amount of hardware and simple equipment implementation means minimizing potential vandalism.
ISA100 Wireless Monitoring
- Gateway x1, Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x3, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x1, Repeater x1
Gateway is installed at control room and 3m height extended antenna is set.
Heat exchangers are devices that provide the flow of thermal energy between two or more fluids at different temperatures. Heat exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications. These include power production; process, chemical and food industries; electronics; environmental engineering; waste heat recovery; manufacturing industry; and air-conditioning, refrigeration, and space applications.
- Temperature Transmitter (YTA) and Pressure Transmitter (EJX) are installed at each monitoring point.
- Repeater is installed on high position.
Ion Exchange is a method for the exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex molecule. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic ion exchangers.
Hydrogen is the simplest and smallest atomic element. Water, acids, bases, and the immense family of organic compounds all contain hydrogen. Even though hydrogen is not corrosive, it can cause problems for pressure transmitters through Hydrogen Permeation.
In maintaining and managing industrial plants, monitoring waste water pH/ORP is both a legal obligation and an unavoidable necessity for protecting the environment. Monitoring without an attentive eye can lead to severe consequences.
Pressure measurement of tubeless tyres to monitor the air loss is one of the key performance tests in the tyre manufacturing units. Relocation of tyres from one testing rack to the other for various tests and frequent movement of the testing setup for conditional tests to various locations calls for cable free implementation for ease of handling.
To defray energy costs, many industrial plants have their own boilers to generate steam to produce a portion of their energy needs. In addition to generating power, the steam may also be used directly in plant processes or indirectly via heat exchangers or steam jacketed vessels.
In this eBook we explain how to improve fired heaters safety & efficiency by controlling combustion using TDLS technology. Download it now and learn:
- The 4 top industry challenges related to fired heaters
- How to efficiently and safely manage combustion
- How TDLS technology can improve operational excellence in fired heaters
Download this eBook and learn:
- The top challenges that drive reinstrumentation
- How to plan for and achieve a successful project
- Best practices in identifying your project scope
- 5 ways to improve operator effectiveness
- Different scenarios and best practices for updating, migrating or replacing process controls, safety systems, and instrumentation in plants
Visual MESA© is a steam system optimization and management computer program that was originally developed at Chevron and now marketed by Nelson & Roseme, Inc. Visual MESA is currently used at refinery and chemical manufacturing sites to optimize the overall site steam system and the parts of the electrical system that economically trade off with the steam system.
This paper will explore significant optimization variables and constraints commonly encountered in refinery steam system optimization, the strategies Visual MESA uses to deal with them.
In the course of more than twenty years as an engineer involved directly in utility related projects in a number of industries, I have seen a great variety of energy efficiency projects and programs covering the entire spectrum of efficacy. The Deer Park, Texas, plant of the Rohm and Haas Company has a unique energy management program that has proven to be highly successful. This program has resulted in a 17 percent reduction in energy use on a per pound of product basis, saving 3.25 trillion btus and $15 million each year! This article discusses this program, its history, successes, and the unique characteristics that have contributed to those successes.
In general, refineries exhibit a very good potential for real time monitoring and optimization using Visual MESA Energy Management System.
Based on our extensive experience, overall benefit in the range of 2% to 5% of the total energy cost can be achieved. Expected project payback is always less than one year.
- What is Energy Optimization
- How does a Real Time Online Energy Management System based on Visual MESA work
- Calculation Foundation for Key Performance Indicators
- Visual MESA implementation at Saudi Kayan (A SABIC Affiliate) (SK)
- Optimization Actionable Items
- Economic Benefits
- Relevance of Visual MESA RTEMS for SK's Sustainability Initiative
The REPSOL company had in mind the improvement of the control on one of their chemical reactors. A feasibility study for the implementation of an Advanced Control technique (Predictive Control for temperature control for chemical Reactors - PCR) for a batch reactor for Polyols production has been performed. The proposed technique PCR is based on a dynamic model of the unit which makes the prediction of the process variables behaviour.
This paper will not describe just all the features of the software or fully explain on-line optimization technology. The objective of this work is to present some interesting facts and lessons from the experience of implementing a cost based optimization program at thirty oil refineries and petrochemical complexes, around the world, since 1997. This paper will focus on the key optimization variables and constraints in steam system optimization, how they should be handled and how the human and organizational aspects can be addressed.
Industrial facilities where power and steam is produced (i.e., Cogeneration) exhibit a very good potential for real time monitoring and optimization using Visual MESA Energy Management System.
Based on our extensive experience, overall benefit in the range of 2% to 5% of the total energy cost can be achieved. Expected project payback is always less than one year.
Visual MESA was successfully applied to many industrial facilities worldwide, several of them operating steam and power generation networks of different complexity and capacity but all with energy cost savings.
This paper discusses real industrial examples in which the sitewide utilities system of refinery and petrochemical Sites are optimized with a real time, on line, industrially proven software. Experiences gained during more than 20 years of industrial projects deployed worldwide are commented (Refs. 1 to 10 are related to some recent projects). Main project steps are explained and critical details to be taken into account to assure successful use and proper technology transfer are presented. Specific case studies will be discussed in the paper.
Utilities and energy systems are often the major source of SOx, NOx and CO2 emissions, therefore, emissions control and the management of credits and quotas are tightly interrelated with energy management.
In the case of refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, energy represents the main cost (second to feedstock) and therefore its reduction has become a bottom line business decision. The energy systems at these sites are inherently complex, with the emissions cost analysis and limits compliance introducing an additional factor to the complexity of the energy costs reduction challenge.
Process plants use different type of fuels, they often operate cogeneration units, their steam networks consist of several pressure levels, there are different types of energy consumers and there are emission limits to be observed. Import or export of electricity in deregulated markets, which could also be traded off with more or less CO2 and other contaminant gaseous emissions, increase the optimization problem complexity.
After a feasibility study, Repsol YPF decided to apply a model-based predictive controller to a batch reactor producing polyols. The predictive controller for reactors (PCR) is a set of control modules that are designed to face most of the reactor configurations. The important increase of production is a consequence of the better handling of the reactor temperature. Here's a description of the unit and control objectives, methodology, project steps, results and the corresponding benefits.
Big and complex industrial facilities like Refineries and Petrochemicals are becoming increasingly aware that power systems need to be optimally managed because any energy reduction that Operations accomplish in the producing Units could eventually be wasted if the overall power system cost is not properly managed. However, process engineers always attempted to develop some kind of tools, many times spreadsheet based, to improve the way utilities systems were operated. The main drawback of the earlier attempts was the lack of data: engineers spent the whole day at phone or visiting the control rooms to gather information from the Distributed Control System (DCS) data historian, process it at the spreadsheet and produce recommendations that, when ready to be applied, were outdated and not any more applicable.
This paper addresses some of the root causes for issues and discusses the best practices that will help to avoid project failures. Main project steps are explained and critical details to be taken into account to assure successful use and proper technology transfer are discussed. It also presents real industrial examples in which the whole utilities system cost of a production Site (i.e., steam, fuels, boiler feed water and electricity) is optimized with a real time, online, industrially well established software.
Utilities and energy systems are often the major source of SOx, NOx and CO2 emissions, therefore, emissions control and the management of credits and quotas are tightly interrelated with energy management. In the case of refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, energy represents the main cost (second to feedstock) and therefore its reduction has become a bottom line business decision. The energy systems at these sites are inherently complex, with the emissions cost analysis and limits compliance introducing an additional factor to the complexity of the energy costs reduction challenge.
The energy systems, the steps for the implementation of Visual MESA and several features of the model are described in this article, with a focus on the use of the software for the calculation of energy-related KPIs. The EMS implementation project is discussed and the main conclusions relative to the reduction in operating costs are also presented.
Experiences gained during more than 20 years of industrial projects deployed worldwide are commented. Main project steps are explained and critical details to be taken into account to assure successful use and proper technology transfer are presented. Specific case studies will be discussed in the paper. Open loop vs Closed loop implementation is also presented.
Rohm and Haas Company is one of the world's largest manufacturers of specialty materials, including adhesives, sealants, coatings, monomers, electronic materials, inorganic and specialty solutions, and ion exchange resins. Founded in 1909 by two German entrepreneurs, Rohm and Haas has grown to approximately $6 billion in annual revenues.
Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.
This paper shows how to improve distillation operations by focusing on procedure automation. It will review the importance of using procedures in distillation operations and highlights the collaboration work underway between Fractionation Research Inc. (FRI) and Yokogawa Corporation to improve procedural operations.
The worlds of process automation and production management have been converging for some time. What once used to be islands of automation and production management functionality connected through highly proprietary integration schemes that were costly to maintain have developed into integrated platforms that provide seamless data exchange between the world of automation and the plant floor, the functions of production and operations management, and integration with business level systems.
The world of process automation is governed by procedures. While we like to refer to the process industries as being largely "continuous", this could not be further from the truth. Process manufacturing is constantly in flux.
From engineering to installation, commissioning, operations, and maintenance, FOUNDATION fieldbus offer significant cost reductions of 30 percent or more versus conventional analog systems. Many of these cost reductions come from the advanced functions that fieldbus offers versus analog technology.
The automation suppliers that will be successful in the long term will be those that effectively address application or industry specific problems for end users with a value proposition that cannot be ignored. These problems exist throughout the process industries today, and they won't be solved by simply offering a product, but through a combination of hardware, software, services, application expertise, and knowledge.
In ARC's view, customers need a compelling business value proposition to justify investment in any kind of automation. Vigilance and VigilantPlant were created with this in mind. Yokogawa's vision with VigilantPlant is to create an environment where plant personnel and operators are well informed, alert, and ready to take action.
Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.
Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.
In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.
Migration of a refinery's DCS provided an opportunity to reconfigure and consolidate the control rooms and operational management system.
Process plants are run according to operational procedures. These procedures consist of a set of tasks that are executed in a consistent manner to achieve a specific objective, such as starting up, shutting down or transitioning a unit as part of making a product.
The new CSPC (CNOOC and Shell Petrochemicals Company Limited) petrochemical complex at Daya Bay in southern China is one of the world's largest process industry projects (see box, Figure 1 and Table). It has a control system to match. Process Worldwide spoke to Johan Veerman, principal instrument and process control engineer at CSPC, about the challenges of managing such a huge job.
In times of abnormal operations, systems are configured to produce lots of data – humans are not configured to handle or interpret them. However, when presented with the right information, in the right context, during an abnormal condition, humans are able to do things machines cannot.
The Wyoming Trona Ore Mine and Refinery upgrade from Yokogawa Centum CS3000 to CENTUM VP-R5 involved two domains, 21 RIO and FIO field control stations, 17 operator stations, 6 engineering stations and 8 different plant servers
ISA S88.01 provides great benefit to users and vendors by solidifying batch operating models and standardizing batch control terminology. On the other hand, as befits an industry-wide standard, ISA S88.01 leaves great flexibility for individual users to apply their own project practices and implementation methodology. Even when utilizing ISA S88.01 models and terminology, many pitfalls remain for those who implement batch controls and recipe management without thinking ahead. Real-world project experience has demonstrated a number of design and implementation "lessons" which might be overlooked to the eventual grief of the batch engineer.
The S88.02 draft standard defines a means for depicting procedural control in master and control recipes. This depiction method is called a Procedural Function Chart (PFC). This standard depiction is based on the requirements of S88.01, technical report ISA-TR88.0.03-1996, user requirements, previous standards and commonly used procedure depiction methods in use today. PFCs can provide a common basis for the exchange of recipes, reduce the learning curve between control systems, and establish a common ground for improved human communication. This paper provides a brief overview of the development of PFCs, the rules for their use and some of the benefits expected by their adoption in the industry.
The case study in this paper illustrates the value of integrating front-end scheduling with a batch control system. Recipe changes, and addition of recipes, occur frequently in the target process. However, since both scheduler and batch packages were designed with the ISA-S88.01 model in mind, these packages could be tightly coupled (well integrated) – and, as a result, it is easy to add or change recipes. The front- end scheduler is not limited to performing scheduling; it also provides an easy-to-grasp real-time production status display which can help enhance efficiency and productivity.
As batch processes are automated, it is common to leave certain less essential field devices without automatic actuators. Thus, the initial control design must accommodate both automated and manual activities. Later, the manual field devices may be automated, either one-at-a-time or in related groups as equipment modules. These field changes, often occurring over a period of years, each require rework of the batch control logic, which can easily exceed the cost of the actuator. In response to this undesirable situation, a technique has been developed which permits the batch design to automatically modify itself, or evolve, to accommodate changes in field automation.
Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology applied to improving any type of process. It is a methodology endorsed by and heavily integrated into several major chemical companies.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used in batch processing industries as measurements of production performance. Their use is one element in the current trend of real-time performance management. A single KPI used as the primary measurement of production can cause other dimensions of production performance lose importance. When multiple KPIs are used to measure a batch's production performance it can be difficult to reconcile differences between them for individual batches or for groups of batches. KPIs based upon meeting a target, or specification, measure absolute performance yet do not provide relative information regarding how a batch performed against its peers. The peer comparisons are important for monitoring variability of production performance, which is a critical factor in documenting ROI.
The application of DCS-based "advanced controls" is a common method of achieving enhanced performance from continuous processes such as refinery units. However, it is less widely recognized, but nonetheless true, that modern DCS systems can include other software tools for the significant improvement of batch plant productivity, product quality, and economic performance. Due to the fundamental processing differences between the two types of plants, unique batch "advanced control" features are required which are different from those used for continuous plants.
CONTROL, January 2013
Standard Automation Methodology Improves Operations and Prevents Incidents by Enabling the Sharing of Best Practices Among Operators.
Process automation in oil refineries is undergoing major changes, driven by customers frustrated by what they consider to be slow and incremental advances from the main automation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in the industry. ExxonMobil has become a de facto industry representative and is driving vendors like Yokogawa and others to reevaluate how large-scale automation projects are implemented.
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems have been part of the process industries for many decades and cyber security measures need to grow as technology advances. SCADA systems are used in oil and gas pipeline and other remote control and monitoring applications, such as electrical transmission and distribution, and water/wastewater.
Many lubricant blending businesses find themselves in a challenging situation: there are opportunities to increase their overall business volume and profits by improving production flexibility, expanding their product slate and optimizing high-margin blends. At the same time, they find themselves constrained by current manufacturing limitations. However, launching a capital project for a significant manufacturing expansion may not be possible, and it may not be necessary.
Spectrometric technology can assess many critical characteristics about products, but it has limits. It can be challenging to determine when the line has been crossed
Machines can support humans when facing a stressful situation. Using a standards-based approach can reduce the likelihood of a problem escalating.
Honeywell and Yokogawa have both been producing Distributed Control System (DCS) platforms for decades, and both are very active in this area. In 1975, Honeywell introduced its TDC2000 platform and Yokogawa brought out CENTUM. These two competing systems emerged from a similar place, oil refining and petrochemical industries, so they started out with similar basic concepts and use cases in mind.
The accuracy of pH measurements depends upon maintenance; maintenance frequency largely depends upon the application. Understanding and addressing the causes of pH measurement difficulties comprise key to ensuring stable and accurate readings.
ROTAMASS is the integral and remote type Coriolis Mass Flow Meter. Both types have highly refined digital signal processing electronics, so that accurate and stable mass flow measurement is achieved.
It is the most technologically advanced mass flow meter yet. By combining the superior design of the application specific flow sensor and transmitters with the Total Insight philosophy and functionality, the flexibility of the ROTAMASS to adapt to changing requirements guarantees performance throughout the lifecycle of the process measurement.
Chet Mroz, President & CEO Yokogawa North America, discusses the benefits of IoT at the 2015 ARC Industry Forum in Orlando.
How much do you know about pressure transmitters? Are you accurately, quickly and reliably measuring pressure? Ultimately, the drive of any good pressure transmitter is to get an accurate, reliable pressure measurement to the data user quickly. This video gives you the answers to your basic questions about pressure and pressure transmitters.
Join this webinar to better understand which manifolds you should use for specific applications and conditions. You will learn:
- A brief history of manifolds
- An overview of the different types of manifolds that are available
- The advantages, disadvantages, and application considerations you should consider when selecting a manifold
- New maintenance and operations support function for the display of statistical information on the status of all plant devices -
- Optimizes the supply chain and operations by enabling plant personnel to work more efficiently -
- For improved agility in implementing control system projects -
- Ideal for construction of small-scale field wireless systems -
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