特种和精细化工产品通常采用批量过程生产。为了适应范围更广的产品，这类工厂的生产系统必须非常灵活。凭借基于ISA-88的批处理功能，横河电机的综合控制解决方案CENTUM VP（集散生产控制系统）可以很好地满足要求。在过程分析和产品质量方面，批次性能数据必须以易于访问的格式存储。批量生产、设备和配方的现状和历史性能数据被基于ISA-88的Exaquantum / Batch信息管理系统收集、保存、显示和报告。同时Exapilot在线导航工具可帮助操作员可靠地执行诸如停车和启动等非常规程序。
化工产品批处理时需要批量操作，其中一些具有多功能性，可以制造多种不同产品，而实现这些需要使用缜密的批量控制系统。集散生产控制系统CENTUM VP，提供基于ISA-88 Batch标准的批处理功能。
批量生产和控制记录需要整体维护，可随时备查。这些信息还将用于决策支持、生产计划、过程分析、过程改进、质量保证等目的。Exaquantum / Batch是基于ISA-88的智能信息系统。它提供经过验证的分析和设备报告，可用于批量生产、设备和配方操作中收集、存储和显示当前和历史的数据。
当企业决定运行EEM系统时，必须同时考虑当工厂扩张和复杂度增加时，EEM系统的扩展性。在极端情况下，一个基于记录仪的小系统可以逐步发展为使用独立PLC进行控制，并最终引入过程控制系统。EEM过程的结构 - 通常是能量优化操作的最重要手段 - 保持完整无缺，因此需要有意识的保留和扩展这种技术。
在一定程度上，我们可以完成所有这些工作 - 保存已经实验和测定的内容，精确定位、消除障碍、优化结构、通过模拟器进行虚拟工厂的培训，尽可能减少停机时间。
DIN EN 62402或NAMUR NE 121的专业过时管理可以确保您获得可靠和可持续解决方案，在您工厂的整个生命周期内持续提供卓越的性价比。
Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corp. was looking for a system that could be easily adopted to its plant architecture. For the following reasons, Yokogawa's STARDOM system with the FCN autonomous controller and the VDS Web-based SCADA software was selected as their control system for a Water-18O plant and other facilities.
As the demand for food is increasing worldwide, fertilizers are playing an essential role in improving agricultural productivity. OCI Nitrogen (hereinafter OCI) is a leading producer of mineral fertilizers and the world's largest producer of melamine, which is used to make adhesives and resins for a wide range of applications, such as furniture panels, laminate flooring, coatings, paints, and plastics.
The UT series of temperature controllers is perfect for controlling the heating temperature of sealing parts and the temperature of sealing rolls (pre-heating) in a variety of different wrapping machinery.
This introduces a system that uses Ethernet communications to acquire measured values, target values, and control output values from a controller installed on site into a PLC at high speed (ten units' worth within one second).
In the plants of food and beverage manufacturers, there are times when monitoring and recording of production equipment is necessary inside clean rooms. This is an introduction to monitoring and recording in clean rooms using paperless recorders.
The ADMAG AXR is the world's first 2-wire magnetic flow meter which employs the unique "Dual Frequency Excitation Method," achieving 0.5% of rate of best-in-class accuracy and excellent stability for process measurement. In addition, the newly developed AXR key technologies," achieves the same level of noise immunity as 4-wire type under the fluid condition change and delivers enough performance to meet the requirement to apply in the control loop.
Control of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration at a salt dissolver where solid salt is dissolved in water, is highly important because of the electrolysis efficiency. A conventional way of measuring the concentration of supersaturated NaCl solution had been performed by using non-contact type sensors (e.g., γ-ray density meter) since NaCl, impurities, and precipitates are in the solution.
In the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Food & Beverage industries, the cleaning and sterilization of tanks and piping are done with various cleaning solutions, fresh or hot water and steam after manufacturing products. Clean-In-Place (CIP) is the system designed for automatic cleaning and disinfecting.
There are various methods for continuous fabric dyeing as well as dye fixing. When dye is directly applied, steaming (heat treatment) is required. At present the pad-steam method is widely used for continuous dyeing. To ensure stable product quality, the humidity in the steamer is kept at a constant level.
In flue gas desulfurization systems that use magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) slurry, the consumption of the desulfurization agent (Mg(OH)2) is controlled by using online pH analyzers. A great concern in the pH measurement is heavy staining of the pH electrodes by the Mg(OH)2 slurry. To ensure accurate measurement, frequent cleaning of the electrodes with an acid is required, adding to both maintenance workload and cost.
Recently, air pollution legislations such as the Clean Air Act to reduce the amount of air pollution are increasing worldwide. The Clean Air Act address numerous air quality problems. One of these problems is acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and other industrial and transportation sources.
Caustic soda is an important basic material in the chemical industry and is mainly produced by the electrolysis of soda. In the electrolysis process to make concentrated caustic soda, the DM8 Liquid Density Meter ensures high product quality through accurate measurement of liquid density.
One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.
Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.
Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.
Many different types of gases are consumed in industries as varied as chemicals, food & beverages, and medical. These gases are normally delivered in liquid form by trucks and dispensed at the customer site. Although the flow volume of cryogenic liquefied gas is used for billing purposes, it is not easy to accurately measure this because the gas is always at saturation temperatures.
The CX1000/CX2000 offers an average value computation function making it ideal for controlling temperature and other fluctuating phenomena. The operating status can be controlled in real time, providing operating cost reductions.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.
The discharge of improperly treated industrial chemicals and fuel gas can have a major impact on the environment, posing a serious threat to public health. Concurrent with the global growth of manufacturing operations to keep pace with market trends, many countries are taking measures to deal with environmental problems.
Controls temperature in, and acquires data from, various internal components of plastic film manufacturing equipment. An easy to use, high cost-performance data acquisition and monitoring system can be assembled by using Ethernet compatible instruments and DAQWORX package software.
Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry.
In limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization systems, the consumption of a desulfurization agent (lime) is controlled using online pH analyzers.
For safe and efficient operation, the quality of feedwater, steam, and condensate in boiler plants must be controlled and maintained in the most favorable conditions.
Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry. Because the large amount of fuel such as gas or fuel oil which is consumed in these processes, their combustion efficiency directly affects the performance and operational costs of the production facilities.
Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.
Steam is still one of the most popular methods of providing an energy source to a process and its associated operations. The more accurate and reliable measurements that are made, the more informed decisions can be taken that affect costs and product quality.
The DXAdvanced Paperless Recorder (hereinafter, the DX) lets you write arbitrary messages on the trend display screen that are useful for writing comments or memos. Moreover, with a combination of the DX touch screen model (DX1000T/2000T) and the custom display function, you can write messages, start/stop recording, and perform a variety of other tasks at the touch of a button.
In the course of more than twenty years as an engineer involved directly in utility related projects in a number of industries, I have seen a great variety of energy efficiency projects and programs covering the entire spectrum of efficacy. The Deer Park, Texas, plant of the Rohm and Haas Company has a unique energy management program that has proven to be highly successful. This program has resulted in a 17 percent reduction in energy use on a per pound of product basis, saving 3.25 trillion btus and $15 million each year! This article discusses this program, its history, successes, and the unique characteristics that have contributed to those successes.
The REPSOL company had in mind the improvement of the control on one of their chemical reactors. A feasibility study for the implementation of an Advanced Control technique (Predictive Control for temperature control for chemical Reactors - PCR) for a batch reactor for Polyols production has been performed. The proposed technique PCR is based on a dynamic model of the unit which makes the prediction of the process variables behaviour.
After a feasibility study, Repsol YPF decided to apply a model-based predictive controller to a batch reactor producing polyols. The predictive controller for reactors (PCR) is a set of control modules that are designed to face most of the reactor configurations. The important increase of production is a consequence of the better handling of the reactor temperature. Here's a description of the unit and control objectives, methodology, project steps, results and the corresponding benefits.
From engineering to installation, commissioning, operations, and maintenance, FOUNDATION fieldbus offer significant cost reductions of 30 percent or more versus conventional analog systems. Many of these cost reductions come from the advanced functions that fieldbus offers versus analog technology.
The automation suppliers that will be successful in the long term will be those that effectively address application or industry specific problems for end users with a value proposition that cannot be ignored. These problems exist throughout the process industries today, and they won't be solved by simply offering a product, but through a combination of hardware, software, services, application expertise, and knowledge.
In ARC's view, customers need a compelling business value proposition to justify investment in any kind of automation. Vigilance and VigilantPlant were created with this in mind. Yokogawa's vision with VigilantPlant is to create an environment where plant personnel and operators are well informed, alert, and ready to take action.
Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.
Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.
In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.
Yokogawa is helping a large chemicals site in China manage product transfer by road, ship and pipeline.
ISA S88.01 provides great benefit to users and vendors by solidifying batch operating models and standardizing batch control terminology. On the other hand, as befits an industry-wide standard, ISA S88.01 leaves great flexibility for individual users to apply their own project practices and implementation methodology. Even when utilizing ISA S88.01 models and terminology, many pitfalls remain for those who implement batch controls and recipe management without thinking ahead. Real-world project experience has demonstrated a number of design and implementation "lessons" which might be overlooked to the eventual grief of the batch engineer.
The S88.02 draft standard defines a means for depicting procedural control in master and control recipes. This depiction method is called a Procedural Function Chart (PFC). This standard depiction is based on the requirements of S88.01, technical report ISA-TR88.0.03-1996, user requirements, previous standards and commonly used procedure depiction methods in use today. PFCs can provide a common basis for the exchange of recipes, reduce the learning curve between control systems, and establish a common ground for improved human communication. This paper provides a brief overview of the development of PFCs, the rules for their use and some of the benefits expected by their adoption in the industry.
The case study in this paper illustrates the value of integrating front-end scheduling with a batch control system. Recipe changes, and addition of recipes, occur frequently in the target process. However, since both scheduler and batch packages were designed with the ISA-S88.01 model in mind, these packages could be tightly coupled (well integrated) – and, as a result, it is easy to add or change recipes. The front- end scheduler is not limited to performing scheduling; it also provides an easy-to-grasp real-time production status display which can help enhance efficiency and productivity.
As batch processes are automated, it is common to leave certain less essential field devices without automatic actuators. Thus, the initial control design must accommodate both automated and manual activities. Later, the manual field devices may be automated, either one-at-a-time or in related groups as equipment modules. These field changes, often occurring over a period of years, each require rework of the batch control logic, which can easily exceed the cost of the actuator. In response to this undesirable situation, a technique has been developed which permits the batch design to automatically modify itself, or evolve, to accommodate changes in field automation.
Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology applied to improving any type of process. It is a methodology endorsed by and heavily integrated into several major chemical companies.
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used in batch processing industries as measurements of production performance. Their use is one element in the current trend of real-time performance management. A single KPI used as the primary measurement of production can cause other dimensions of production performance lose importance. When multiple KPIs are used to measure a batch's production performance it can be difficult to reconcile differences between them for individual batches or for groups of batches. KPIs based upon meeting a target, or specification, measure absolute performance yet do not provide relative information regarding how a batch performed against its peers. The peer comparisons are important for monitoring variability of production performance, which is a critical factor in documenting ROI.
The application of DCS-based "advanced controls" is a common method of achieving enhanced performance from continuous processes such as refinery units. However, it is less widely recognized, but nonetheless true, that modern DCS systems can include other software tools for the significant improvement of batch plant productivity, product quality, and economic performance. Due to the fundamental processing differences between the two types of plants, unique batch "advanced control" features are required which are different from those used for continuous plants.
ARC believes that by implementing procedural automation, many process plants can minimize variability to help ensure smooth, efficient, and safe state transitions.