특수화학 및 정밀화학

특수화학 및 정밀 화학 시장의 생산자는 많은 어려움에 직면해 있습니다. 연구 중심의 혁신과 고객의 요구를 충족시키기 위한 제품 시장에 대한 신속한 도입이 수익성의 핵심입니다. 또한 고객을 위한 제품 및 솔루션 요구 사항을 충족시키기 위하여 미래에 대해서도 조사해야 합니다.

Yokogawa는 오랫동안 특수 및 정밀 화학 시장에서 고객을 지원해왔습니다. Batch 솔루션 설계의 복잡한 요구 사항을 이해하는 업계 전문가는 물론 업계 최고 수준의 안정성과 유연성을 제공하는 시장 선도 일괄 처리 솔루션을 사용하면 Yokogawa와의 파트너십에서 안전 및 규정 준수를 유지하면서 고객의 요구 사항을 충족시키는 제품을 생산할 수 있습니다.

 

 Customer Challenge

화학회사는 제품의 품질뿐만 아니라 필요한 생산 공정에 관한 엄격한 요구 사항을 지정합니다. 무엇보다도 이것은 화학 산업의 "규제된" 공정 설비의 설계, 설치 및 자동화에 적용됩니다.

Our Solutions

특수화학 및 정밀화학 제품들은 일반적으로 Batch 공정에 의해 생산됩니다. 이러한 플랜트의 생산 시스템은 다양한 제품을 수용할 수 있도록 유연해야 합니다. Yokogawa의 포괄적인 제어 솔루션인 CENTUM VP 통합 생산 관리 시스템은 ISA-88 기반 일괄 처리 기능을 통해 이 요구 사항과 잘 일치합니다. 공정 및 제품 품질 분석을 위해 일괄 처리 성능 데이터를 쉽게 액세스할 수 있는 형식으로 저장해야 합니다. ISA-88 기반의 Exaquantum/Batch 정보 관리 시스템은 일괄 생산, 장비 및 레시피에 대한 현재 및 과거 실적 데이터를 수집, 저장, 표시 및 보고를 합니다. 또한 Exapilot 온라인 내비게이션 도구는 작업자가 시스템 종료 및 시동과 같은 비일상적인 절차를 안정적으로 실행할 수 있도록 도와줍니다.

Enabling Technology

Production Control System: CENTUM VP Batch
화학 Batch 공정은 Batch 작업을 필요로하며, 그중 일부는 다품종 제품이므로 여러 제품을 생산할 수 있습니다. 이것은 포괄적인 Batch 제어 시스템의 사용을 필요로합니다. 통합 생산 관리 시스템인 CENTUM VP는 ISA-88 Batch 표준을 기반으로 Batch 기능을 제공합니다.


Process Information Management System: Exaquantum/Batch
Batch 생산 및 컨트롤 기록은 완전한 방식으로 유지되어야 하며 검사를 위해 즉시 이용 가능해야 합니다. 이 정보는 또한 의사 결정 지원, 생산 계획, 공정 분석, 공정 개선, 품질 보증 목적을 위해 활용될 것입니다. Exaquantum/Batch는 지능형 ISA-88 기반 정보 시스템입니다. Batch 생산, 장비 및 레시피 관점에서 현재 및 과거 데이터를 수집, 저장 및 표시하는 검증 된 분석 및 보고 기능을 제공합니다.


Operation Efficiency Improvement: Exapilot
Exapilot은 운영자가 공장 운영 절차를 단계별로 안내하는 온라인 내비게이션 도구입니다.
Exapilot을 사용하여 표준 운영 절차 (또는 SOP)가 표준화된 양식으로 생성됩니다. SOP는 근로자, 조작자, 운전자의 실수를 줄이거나 제거함으로써 효율성을 향상시키고 총 지출 비용을 줄입니다.

 

 Customer Challenge

스팀 또는 압축 공기와 같은 에너지 형태의 조달 비용 및 가용성은 대규모 플랜트의 경우 특히 변동될 수 있습니다. 에너지 효율 관리 (EEM)를 위한 중요한 매개 변수입니다.

Enabling Technology

Clear recommendations for action

Yokogawa의 전체적인 EEM 솔루션인 PEEMS (Plant Energy Efficiency Management System)는 플랜트의 에너지 소비량에 따라 특정 조치를 권장합니다.

관련 다이어그램에 명확하게 설명되어 있으며 Yokogawa 솔루션이 EEM을 향상시키는 데 도움이 되는 시작점을 보여줍니다.

Yokogawa는 필드 레벨 (에너지 계량기 제공)부터 프로세스 레벨 (제어 시스템 또는 소형 맞춤형 정보 시스템 제공)에서 MES 레벨 (에너지 소비 분석 및 평가)에 이르기까지 자동화 피라미드를 따라 전체적인 에너지 솔루션을 제공합니다.

그러나 공정 산업에서 플랜트 수준에서 비용 절감 잠재력을 확인하고 실현하기 위한 네 가지 필수 조건이 있습니다.
1. 충분히 크고 검증된 데이터베이스
2. 지능형 데이터 분석 및 해석
3. 명확하게 가시화된 결과
4. 의미 있고 명료한 작업 권장 사항 제시

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Overview of all relevant energy flows

목표는 원본 데이터를 평가하여 최적의 에너지 사용 전략의 도출을 가능한 한 자동화하는 것입니다. 이러한 전략은 구조화된 형태로 관련 사업자에게 전달되어야 합니다. 공장 운영자에게 친숙한 공정 그래픽 레벨을 제시하고 에너지 흐름을 쉽게 파악할 수 있는 이점을 제공하는 것이 여기에 있는 이점입니다. Sankey 도표의 화살표와 비슷한 추가 지표가 추가로 필요합니다.

계단식 메뉴에서 상세한 보충 정보를 제공할 수 있습니다. 직관적인 색 구성표, 선명한 화면 레이아웃 및 간단한 아이콘을 통해 중요한 분석 결과를 신속하고 정확하게 파악할 수 있습니다. Yokogawa의 "플랜트 에너지 효율 관리 시스템"(PEEMS) 개발팀은 사용자가 이해하기 쉬운 시스템으로 개발하는 것을 최우선 과제로 삼았습니다.

맞춤형 정보 필터

회사가 EEM 시스템을 구현하기로 결정할 때 플랜트가 확장되고 점점 더 복잡해지면서 시스템이 "성장"할 수 있는 능력을 동시에 고려해야 합니다. 극단적인 경우에는 작은 레코더 기반 시스템으로 시작하는 것이 독립형 PLC로 제어하고 프로세스 제어 시스템 도입을 앞당길 수 있습니다. EEM 프로세스의 구조(에너지 최적화 작업을 위한 모든 중요한 요소)는 그대로 유지되므로 이 노하우를 보존하고 확장하는 것이 타당합니다.

EMM 시스템은 공장 운전자를 대신하는 자동 조종 장치가 아닙니다. 오히려 안전, 사용 가능한 원재료 품질 및 특정 제품 품질 또는 생산성 및 생산 능력 요구 사항 등과 같은 다른 매개 변수도 중요한 영향을 미칩니다. 이 시스템은 아래의 주요 기능을 통합하는 운영자 지원 도구로 설명할 수 있습니다.
1. 전류 및 에너지 최적화 작업 비교
2. 다른 운영 모드로 전환하여 얼마나 많은 에너지를 절약할 수 있는지 공장 운영자에게 설명
3. 필요한 경우 운영자가 기존 모드에서 최적화된 작동 모드로의 전환할 수 있도록 지원

마지막으로, 이러한 작업을 마스터하기 위해서는 신뢰할 수 있고 의미 있는 데이터베이스, 그리고 이 데이터는 구조화되고 우선순위가 있는 해석, 결과에 대한 명확하고 이해하기 쉽게 시각화 및 권장하는 작업 과정이 요구됩니다.

이러한 요구 사항이 충족되면 Yokogawa EEM 시스템은 효율성 향상과 비용 절감을 극대화하는 한편 플랜트 운영자의 추가 부담을 최소화하는 데 기여할 수 있습니다.

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 Customer Challenge

공정 플랜트는 종종 수십 년 동안 지속될 수 있도록 제작됩니다. 대부분의 경우 원래의 자동화 기술은 최첨단 기술보다 뒤떨어져 있습니다. 이런 방식으로 플랜트 소유주는 많은 가치 있는 잠재력을 낭비합니다.

Our Solutions

Yokogawa는 40년이 넘는, 화학 및 제약 산업 자동화 경험을 통해 고객의 효율성 확보를 지원합니다.

플랜트를 현대화하는 데에는 여러 가지 이유가 있습니다.
• 생산성 및 경쟁력 향상
• 환경 및 천연자원을 보호하는 에너지 효율적인 생산 프로세스
• 실제 요구에 맞는 최첨단의 안전 지향 개념
• 사용자 친화적인 작동
• 수평 및 수직 통합을 통한 정보 투명성 강화
• 플랜트 가용성 향상을 위한 혁신적인 플랜트 자산 관리
• 보다 유연한 생산

우리는 모든 것을 이미 시도하고 테스트한 것을 보존하고, 장애물을 찾아내고 제거하며, 구조물을 최적화하고, 시뮬레이션 및 가상 플랜트 교육을 통해 가동 중지 시간을 최소화합니다.

우리는 "비교 효과 분석"을 수행하여 구식 시스템 개념을 전반적인 조사에 적용합니다. 자체 벤치마킹 절차를 사용하여 설계 단계부터 공장에 가치를 추가하는 가장 적합한 방법을 결정합니다.

위험 분석의 틀에서, 우리는 중요한 근대화 측면을 조기에 파악하고 이에 따라 계획된 조치의 우선순위를 정합니다.

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Enabling Technology

DIN EN 62402 또는 NAMUR NE 121에 따른 전문 노후화 관리는 공장 수명 기간 동안 계속해서 우수한 가치를 제공하는 실행 가능하고 지속 가능한 솔루션을 보장합니다.

현대화는 단순한 마이그레이션 이상입니다. 당사는 최초 아이디어부터 공장 가동까지 현대적이고 효율적인 프로세스 자동화 (개별적으로 또는 패키지의 일부로)에 이르는 모든 서비스를 제공합니다.

Overview:

MGC Mizushima Plant selected Yokogawa's PDA to achieve one of its improvement activities.
MGC has successfully stabilized the process and reduced the operator work load.

Overview:
  • Nan Ya had been using Yokogawa Micro-XL DCS since the plant opened in the 1990s.
  • Step-by-step approach for migration from Micro-XL to CENTUM VP keeps downtime to a minimum.
Overview:
  • PRM allows a preventive maintenance approach where maintenance can be scheduled and performed before a field device fails.
  • Exaquantum gathers plant data from the CENTUM VP to generate a variety of reports on the polymerization process.
Overview:
  • Exapilot is Effectively Applied to Polypropylene Plant and Optimizes Operation, Cost Savings.
  • By using Yokogawa's Exapilot, Safripol were able to eliminate product variations and kept the operations consistent.
Overview:
  • Migration from Micro-XL and CENTUM CS 1000 to CENTUM CS 3000 Improves Reliability.
  • Operations at this plant, which runs more than 330 days per year, are carefully managed by the CENTUM CS 3000 DCS and the CS Batch package.
Overview:
  • Highly reliable CENTUM CS 3000 replaces legacy system and automates batch plant operation.
  • Working together, Hanwha Chemical and Yokogawa Korea project personnel completed this work on time and on schedule.
Overview:
  • Integration of CENTUM CS 3000 with ProSafe-RS improves plant safety and reliability.
  • Yokogawa's PRM package manages more than 500 HART field devices including control valves.
Overview:
  • Fieldbus technology introduced to realize predictive and preventive maintenance.
  • ISAE to improve the reliability of diagnosis and parameter setting, utilizing data collected by PRM.
Overview:
  • CENTUM CS 3000 and Exaquantum PIMS improve production efficiency at Chinese synthetic rubber plant.
  • Exaquantum provides data on long-term trends needed to make improvements to plant processes.
Overview:
  • Based on a careful review of all operational procedures and operator roles and configured new SOPs in Exapilot.
  • As a result, SFC has been able to reduce operator workload, improve product quality, and reduce production losses.
Overview:
  • The work was based on a preceisely formulated roadmap with detailed checklists for every control cabinet, process station, and network component.
  • The seamless use of the same HMI for both PCS and SIS, and improved safety and integrity.
Overview:
  • CS Batch is used to automate a wide range of Reichhold's batch processes and multi-product/multi-path processes.
  • Using PRM, process engineers can immediately find out the status of every field device without having to do an onsite inspection.
Overview:

Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corp. was looking for a system that could be easily adopted to its plant architecture. For the following reasons, Yokogawa's STARDOM system with the FCN autonomous controller and the VDS Web-based SCADA software was selected as their control system for a Water-18O plant and other facilities.

Overview:
  • Exapilot was built up as e-SOP system based on the standard operating procedures and the know-how of experienced operators.
  • e-SOP system improved the quality and productivity in the performance chemical plant in China.
Overview:
  • Installation of Exaquantum PIMS package improves efficiency of process data management.
  • Improve quality and yield through proactive maintenance of plant assets.
Overview:
  • Easy-to-understand sequence programs' creation
  • An entire programming system built by operators
  • Operator workloads reduction
Overview:

As the demand for food is increasing worldwide, fertilizers are playing an essential role in improving agricultural productivity. OCI Nitrogen (hereinafter OCI) is a leading producer of mineral fertilizers and the world's largest producer of melamine, which is used to make adhesives and resins for a wide range of applications, such as furniture panels, laminate flooring, coatings, paints, and plastics.

Overview:
  • IFCo chose Omegaland operator training system to make ready for a flawless and safe plant start-up.
  • Omegaland is contributing to operator training prior to completion of the greenfield fertilizer plant.
Overview:
  • Up to 90% of all manual tasks can now be carried out automatically.
  • Increasing productivity by means of partially automated start-up and load change procedures.
Overview:
  • Yokogawa's CENTUM VP and PRM improve efficiency at new nylon plant in Thailand.
  • At the plant startup stage, PRM was used together with FieldMate to thoroughly check all loops.
Overview:
  • At the company's Ulsan resin plant, six Exaquantum servers were connected to CENTUM CS 3000 and other vendor's systems.
  • KKPC needed to expand its SBC capabilities and improve production efficiency at its plants.
Overview:
  • TOK decided to start local production of high-quality photoresist for semiconductor manufacturing near its customers in Taiwan.
  • The MES with traceability comparable with pharmaceutical manufacturing is one of the factors to win the trust of its customers.
Overview:
  • FDT compliant FieldMate manages a wide variety of digital process instruments of multi-vendors.
  • The SNF engineers can manage the complete lifecycle of assets and configure devices by using FieldMate.
Overview:
  • Kuraray EVAL and Yokogawa prepared carefully for the expansion and modernization of the CENTUM system.
  • Management of 400+ fieldbus instruments by Yokogawa's PRM plant resource manage also helped the project to proceed smoothly.
Overview:

The UT series of temperature controllers is perfect for controlling the heating temperature of sealing parts and the temperature of sealing rolls (pre-heating) in a variety of different wrapping machinery.

Overview:

This introduces a system that uses Ethernet communications to acquire measured values, target values, and control output values from a controller installed on site into a PLC at high speed (ten units' worth within one second).

Overview:

In the plants of food and beverage manufacturers, there are times when monitoring and recording of production equipment is necessary inside clean rooms. This is an introduction to monitoring and recording in clean rooms using paperless recorders.

Application Note
Overview:

The ADMAG AXR is the world's first 2-wire magnetic flow meter which employs the unique "Dual Frequency Excitation Method," achieving 0.5% of rate of best-in-class accuracy and excellent stability for process measurement. In addition, the newly developed AXR key technologies," achieves the same level of noise immunity as 4-wire type under the fluid condition change and delivers enough performance to meet the requirement to apply in the control loop.

Overview:

Control of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration at a salt dissolver where solid salt is dissolved in water, is highly important because of the electrolysis efficiency. A conventional way of measuring the concentration of supersaturated NaCl solution had been performed by using non-contact type sensors (e.g., γ-ray density meter) since NaCl, impurities, and precipitates are in the solution.

Overview:

In the manufacturing process of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Food & Beverage industries, the cleaning and sterilization of tanks and piping are done with various cleaning solutions, fresh or hot water and steam after manufacturing products. Clean-In-Place (CIP) is the system designed for automatic cleaning and disinfecting.

Overview:

There are various methods for continuous fabric dyeing as well as dye fixing. When dye is directly applied, steaming (heat treatment) is required. At present the pad-steam method is widely used for continuous dyeing. To ensure stable product quality, the humidity in the steamer is kept at a constant level. 

Overview:

In flue gas desulfurization systems that use magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) slurry, the consumption of the desulfurization agent (Mg(OH)2) is controlled by using online pH analyzers. A great concern in the pH measurement is heavy staining of the pH electrodes by the Mg(OH)2 slurry. To ensure accurate measurement, frequent cleaning of the electrodes with an acid is required, adding to both maintenance workload and cost.

Industry:Chemical, Power

Application Note
Overview:

Recently, air pollution legislations such as the Clean Air Act to reduce the amount of air pollution are increasing worldwide. The Clean Air Act address numerous air quality problems. One of these problems is acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil-fueled power plants and other industrial and transportation sources.

Overview:

Caustic soda is an important basic material in the chemical industry and is mainly produced by the electrolysis of soda. In the electrolysis process to make concentrated caustic soda, the DM8 Liquid Density Meter ensures high product quality through accurate measurement of liquid density.

Application Note
Overview:

One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.

Overview:

Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.

Application Note
Overview:

Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.

Overview:

Many different types of gases are consumed in industries as varied as chemicals, food & beverages, and medical. These gases are normally delivered in liquid form by trucks and dispensed at the customer site. Although the flow volume of cryogenic liquefied gas is used for billing purposes, it is not easy to accurately measure this because the gas is always at saturation temperatures.

Overview:

The CX1000/CX2000 offers an average value computation function making it ideal for controlling temperature and other fluctuating phenomena. The operating status can be controlled in real time, providing operating cost reductions.

Overview:

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.

Overview:

The discharge of improperly treated industrial chemicals and fuel gas can have a major impact on the environment, posing a serious threat to public health. Concurrent with the global growth of manufacturing operations to keep pace with market trends, many countries are taking measures to deal with environmental problems.

Overview:

Controls temperature in, and acquires data from, various internal components of plastic film manufacturing equipment. An easy to use, high cost-performance data acquisition and monitoring system can be assembled by using Ethernet compatible instruments and DAQWORX package software.

Overview:

Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry.

Overview:

In limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization systems, the consumption of a desulfurization agent (lime) is controlled using online pH analyzers.

Overview:
  • Compressor start and stop
    The inlet valve and blow-off valve are controlled efficiently.
  • During steady-state operation
    The inlet valve is controlled to regulate the blow-off flow rate of the compressed air. (Flow control)
Overview:

For safe and efficient operation, the quality of feedwater, steam, and condensate in boiler plants must be controlled and maintained in the most favorable conditions.

Overview:

Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry. Because the large amount of fuel such as gas or fuel oil which is consumed in these processes, their combustion efficiency directly affects the performance and operational costs of the production facilities.

Application Note
Overview:
  • In the YS170 and SLPC, single-element control needs to be configured within the user program.
  • The YS1700, however, offers the primary direct mode so that the user program can switch on and off single-element control by changing a parameter.
Overview:

Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.

Overview:

Steam is still one of the most popular methods of providing an energy source to a process and its associated operations. The more accurate and reliable measurements that are made, the more informed decisions can be taken that affect costs and product quality.

Overview:
  • Emergency interlock circuits for petrochemical plants and other facilities must be independent of the main control system.
  • The YS80 Rack Instrument interfaces not only with field devices and upstream control systems, but also with emergency interlock circuits guarding against process abnormalities.
Overview:

The DXAdvanced Paperless Recorder (hereinafter, the DX) lets you write arbitrary messages on the trend display screen that are useful for writing comments or memos. Moreover, with a combination of the DX touch screen model (DX1000T/2000T) and the custom display function, you can write messages, start/stop recording, and perform a variety of other tasks at the touch of a button.

Overview:

In the course of more than twenty years as an engineer involved directly in utility related projects in a number of industries, I have seen a great variety of energy efficiency projects and programs covering the entire spectrum of efficacy. The Deer Park, Texas, plant of the Rohm and Haas Company has a unique energy management program that has proven to be highly successful. This program has resulted in a 17 percent reduction in energy use on a per pound of product basis, saving 3.25 trillion btus and $15 million each year! This article discusses this program, its history, successes, and the unique characteristics that have contributed to those successes. 

Overview:

The REPSOL company had in mind the improvement of the control on one of their chemical reactors. A feasibility study for the implementation of an Advanced Control technique (Predictive Control for temperature control for chemical Reactors - PCR) for a batch reactor for Polyols production has been performed. The proposed technique PCR is based on a dynamic model of the unit which makes the prediction of the process variables behaviour.

Overview:

After a feasibility study, Repsol YPF decided to apply a model-based predictive controller to a batch reactor producing polyols. The predictive controller for reactors (PCR) is a set of control modules that are designed to face most of the reactor configurations. The important increase of production is a consequence of the better handling of the reactor temperature. Here's a description of the unit and control objectives, methodology, project steps, results and the corresponding benefits.

Overview:

From engineering to installation, commissioning, operations, and maintenance, FOUNDATION fieldbus offer significant cost reductions of 30 percent or more versus conventional analog systems. Many of these cost reductions come from the advanced functions that fieldbus offers versus analog technology.

Overview:

The automation suppliers that will be successful in the long term will be those that effectively address application or industry specific problems for end users with a value proposition that cannot be ignored. These problems exist throughout the process industries today, and they won't be solved by simply offering a product, but through a combination of hardware, software, services, application expertise, and knowledge.

Overview:

In ARC's view, customers need a compelling business value proposition to justify investment in any kind of automation. Vigilance and VigilantPlant were created with this in mind. Yokogawa's vision with VigilantPlant is to create an environment where plant personnel and operators are well informed, alert, and ready to take action. 

Overview:

Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.

Overview:

Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.

Overview:

In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.

Overview:

September 2008

Yokogawa is helping a large chemicals site in China manage product transfer by road, ship and pipeline.

Overview:

ISA S88.01 provides great benefit to users and vendors by solidifying batch operating models and standardizing batch control terminology. On the other hand, as befits an industry-wide standard, ISA S88.01 leaves great flexibility for individual users to apply their own project practices and implementation methodology. Even when utilizing ISA S88.01 models and terminology, many pitfalls remain for those who implement batch controls and recipe management without thinking ahead. Real-world project experience has demonstrated a number of design and implementation "lessons" which might be overlooked to the eventual grief of the batch engineer.

Overview:

The S88.02 draft standard defines a means for depicting procedural control in master and control recipes. This depiction method is called a Procedural Function Chart (PFC). This standard depiction is based on the requirements of S88.01, technical report ISA-TR88.0.03-1996, user requirements, previous standards and commonly used procedure depiction methods in use today. PFCs can provide a common basis for the exchange of recipes, reduce the learning curve between control systems, and establish a common ground for improved human communication. This paper provides a brief overview of the development of PFCs, the rules for their use and some of the benefits expected by their adoption in the industry.

Overview:

The case study in this paper illustrates the value of integrating front-end scheduling with a batch control system. Recipe changes, and addition of recipes, occur frequently in the target process. However, since both scheduler and batch packages were designed with the ISA-S88.01 model in mind, these packages could be tightly coupled (well integrated) – and, as a result, it is easy to add or change recipes. The front- end scheduler is not limited to performing scheduling; it also provides an easy-to-grasp real-time production status display which can help enhance efficiency and productivity.

Overview:

As batch processes are automated, it is common to leave certain less essential field devices without automatic actuators. Thus, the initial control design must accommodate both automated and manual activities. Later, the manual field devices may be automated, either one-at-a-time or in related groups as equipment modules. These field changes, often occurring over a period of years, each require rework of the batch control logic, which can easily exceed the cost of the actuator. In response to this undesirable situation, a technique has been developed which permits the batch design to automatically modify itself, or evolve, to accommodate changes in field automation.

Overview:

Six Sigma is a quality improvement methodology applied to improving any type of process. It is a methodology endorsed by and heavily integrated into several major chemical companies.

Overview:

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are used in batch processing industries as measurements of production performance. Their use is one element in the current trend of real-time performance management. A single KPI used as the primary measurement of production can cause other dimensions of production performance lose importance. When multiple KPIs are used to measure a batch's production performance it can be difficult to reconcile differences between them for individual batches or for groups of batches. KPIs based upon meeting a target, or specification, measure absolute performance yet do not provide relative information regarding how a batch performed against its peers. The peer comparisons are important for monitoring variability of production performance, which is a critical factor in documenting ROI.

Overview:

The application of DCS-based "advanced controls" is a common method of achieving enhanced performance from continuous processes such as refinery units. However, it is less widely recognized, but nonetheless true, that modern DCS systems can include other software tools for the significant improvement of batch plant productivity, product quality, and economic performance. Due to the fundamental processing differences between the two types of plants, unique batch "advanced control" features are required which are different from those used for continuous plants.

Overview:

ARC believes that by implementing procedural automation, many process plants can minimize variability to help ensure smooth, efficient, and safe state transitions.

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