업스트림

업스트림(Upstream) 산업에는 유전 또는 해저의 원유 및 천연가스의 채취 및 생산을 위한 유정제어, 증류, 분리 및 제품 완성을 포함한 해상 및 육상 플랜트가 포함됩니다.

석유는 육상으로 옮겨져야 하는 관계로 운송 전에 분리 작업이 필요합니다. 1차 및 2차 분리 단계는 일반적으로 가스 흐름, 물 흐름 및 오일 흐름의 3단계로 분류됩니다. 가스 이동은 파이프라인을 필요로 하며, 이동하기 전에 상류 공정에서 분류 공정을 거치게 됩니다. 액체는 탱크 또는 파이프라인에 넣고 운송을 하므로 정확한 레벨 측정이 가능한 레벨계가 필요합니다.

Customer Challenge

오일 및 가스의 유전은 더욱 깊은 곳까지 개발하고 있고 더 넓은 지역으로 분산되어 계속 어렵고 복잡한 기술을 적용해야 합니다. 비용도 이에 비례하며, 비용을 절감하기 위해서는 예기치 않은 갑작스러운 가동 중단을 초래할 수 있는 장비 고장을 방지하는 것이 필수적입니다.

Our Solutions

예상외의 불시 가동중단은 생산 계획을 방해하고 수익을 저해합니다. Yokogawa 제품의 높은 가용성으로 오일 및 가스 분야에서의 예기치 않은 설비 가동 중단으로부터 보호하며 비용을 절감하고 프로세스의 안전성을 향상시킵니다.

Yokogawa의 분산형 제어 시스템 (DCS) CENTUM 시리즈 핵심은 2개의 마이크로프로세서가 장착된 CPU 모듈 이중화 구조로 고유의 "Pair and Spare" 컨트롤러 구성입니다. 두 프로세서는 주제어 CPU모듈에서 지속적으로 입, 출력을 비교하여 불일치가 감지되면 시차 없이 바로 다른 CPU로의 제어권 전환이 됩니다. 이러한 방법으로 CENTUM 시리즈 시스템은 99.99999% 의 가용성을 달성합니다. STARDOM RTU와 같은 다른 Yokogawa 제품들은 최고급 PC에 적용하는 것과 동일한 데이터의 장기간 저장을 용이하게 하기 위해 데이터 오류 검출 및 수정을 할 수 있는 오류 정정 코드 메모리 (ECC)를 이용하는 유사한 설계 개념을 따르고 있습니다. 이를 통해 가동 중단 시간을 줄이고 시스템 안정성을 높이며 원격지 유정 위치로 이동할 필요성을 제거해 유지 보수 효율성을 높일 수 있습니다.

Enabling Technology

CENTUM VP

Yokogawa 개발품인 CENTUM 시리즈 제어 컨트롤러 (FCS) 포함 관련 하드웨어 및 소프트웨어에 모든 시스템에 대한 노하우를 적용하였기에 99.99999%의 가용성(Availability)을 유지할 수 있습니다.

STARDOM

256 MHz 32 비트 RISC 프로세서와 같은 특징을 가지는 FCN-RTU는 현장에서 검증된 FCN/FCJ 구조로 발전시켜 고성능 및 저전력소모를 제공합니다. 이 저렴한 모델에는 4개의 직렬 I/O 포트와 1개의 Ethernet포트가 있어 SCADA 애플리케이션의 최소 요구 사항을 충족합니다.

Customer Challenge

석유 및 가스 회사들은 경쟁력을 유지하고 수익성을 높이려고 노력하고 있습니다. 이것을 위한 한 가지 방법은 향상된 성능을 위한 현장 디지털 기술의 응용을 통하여 이루는 것입니다.

Our Solutions

Yokogawa의 정확하고 안정적인 현장 디지털 기술은 예기치 않은 가동 중단 시간을 줄이고 현장 이동의 필요성을 없앰으로써 석유 및 가스 회사에게 경쟁 우위를 제공합니다. Yokogawa는 이 최첨단 기술로의 이동을 위한 길을 제공합니다.

Enabling Technology

Field Digital

Yokogawa는 1998년 최초의 FOUNDATION fieldbus™ 호환 제품을 출시하면서 현장 디지털 기술을 본격적으로 개발하기 시작했습니다. FOUNDATION fieldbus™ 국제 표준의 정의를 선도하는 Yokogawa는 디지털 필드 장치의 관리 및 진단을 향상시켜 지능형 필드 장치의 도입 및 필드 배선의 필요성을 축소하는 운영의 최적화에 중추적인 역할을 담당하고 있습니다.

Field Wireless

Yokogawa 무선 기술은 측정 지점을 추가하는 데 모든 시간과 노력을 기울입니다. 물리적으로 설치가 어려운 곳이나 설치가 까다로운 장소에 쉽게 현장 계기를 설치할 수 있습니다. 무선 네트워크를 통한 센서 연결은 감시 효율을 향상시키면서 전력 소비 및 통신을 최적화하므로 측정 가용성을 극대화합니다. 광역 네트워크를 통한 무선 측정의 통합은 제어실에 현장 정보의 흐름을 용이하게 하며 Yokogawa의 FAST/TOOLS SCADA 시스템으로 시각화되고 관리될 수 있습니다.

기술 업그레이드

가스 및 오일 플랜트 운영에 디지털 기술을 도입하면 생산 최적화, 운영 안전 개선 및 환경 보호에 도움이 될 수 있습니다. 추가적인 이점은 이러한 디지털 기술을 쉽게 사용할 수 있다는 것입니다. Yokogawa의 STARDOM RTU와 하이브리드 PLC는 아날로그 센서와 디지털 센서를 동시에 제어할 수 있으므로 더 이상 중간 장치를 설치하거나 Modbus, FOUNDATION fieldbus™, HART, DNP3 또는 Device Net을 사용하는 다른 타입의 필드 네트워크 또는 전용 네트워크를 설정할 필요가 없습니다. 따라서 디지털 필드 네트워크에 대한 단계별 업그레이드가 가능합니다.

Customer Challenge

유인 및 무인 유전들은 주로 넓은 지역에 분산되어 있으며 다양한 유형의 통신 인프라로 연결됩니다. 이러한 복잡한 운영을 통합하는 것이 효율성 향상에 크게 기여합니다.

Our Solutions

통합 실시간 모니터링

Yokogawa는 통합된 감시 및 알람 처리를 가능하게 하는 통합된 HMI (Human Machine Interface)를 제공합니다. 이를 통해 시스템 운전이 쉬워지고 운영자 오류가 줄어들고 안전이 향상되며 교육 시간과 비용이 절감됩니다. Yokogawa 통합 게이트웨이 스테이션 (UGS)은 Modbus (TCP/RTU), OPC 및 EtherNet/IP와 같은 기술을 사용하는 Yokogawa 지능형 RTU (STARDOM) 및 PLC와 고유의 네트워크 연결을 지원하며 무인 및 유인 유정을 쉽게 통합할 수 있습니다. 서로 다른 네트워크의 그래픽이 모두 동일하게 CENTUM VP에 동일하게 보이고 인지되므로 운영자는 전체 시스템을 좀 더 쉽게 운전하고 알람을 처리할 수 있는 CENTUM VP HMI를 사용하는 방법만 배우면 됩니다. UGS는 STARDOM, Modbus 및 EtherNet/IP를 위한 단일 및 이중화 통신 네트워크와 같은 모든 종류의 통신을 수용합니다. 추가 UGS를 사용하여 매우 안정적인 시스템을 구축하려면 단순 프로그래밍만 있으면 가능합니다.

Enabling Technology

UGS는 HIS의 통합 운영 및 모니터링 환경을 위해 다음과 같은 특징을 가지고 있습니다.

  • 서로 다른 컨트롤러 간의 원활한 프로세스 운영 및 감시 (프로세스 데이터 및 알람용) 및 시스템 모니터링
  • 광범위한 운전 및 감시
  • 향상된 엔지니어링 효율성

시스템 구성 예

UGS는 CENTUM VP와 서브시스템 컨트롤러 간의 중간 장치 역할을 합니다. UGS는 CENTUM VP 현장 제어 스테이션과 동일한 방식으로 하위 시스템 컨트롤러를 운전 및 감시합니다.


HIS:  human interface station
ENG:  engineering station
FCS:  field control station
SCS:  safety control station


 

해양 석유 및 가스 분야의 관리는 분야 및 비즈니스 영역 전반에 걸쳐 통합된 데이터를 사용하는 통합된 운영으로 옮겨가고 있습니다. 통합 운영을 통해 Upstream의 석유 및 가스 회사는 자유로운 원격 환경에서의 증가된 복잡성에 도전하고 있습니다. 통합된 시스템으로 통합된 운영이 가능합니다. 긴밀하게 통합된 시스템은 의사 결정의 질과 속도를 향상시키고 일의 방법을 변화시킵니다.

Enterprise Automation Solution(EAS)은 분산 자동화 시스템의 분석, 연구, 자산 모니터링 및 제어를 위해 플랜트 또는 현장에서 엔터프라이즈 수준으로 실시간 자동화된 내역 정보를 제공하는 솔루션입니다. 안전, 생산 및 효율성을 향상시키기 위해 사람들은 그들이 할 수 있는 최선의 정보를 얻을 필요가 있습니다. EAS는 적절한 시기에 올바른 결정을 할 수 있도록 정확한 자동화 관련 정보를 적합한 사람에게 전달합니다.

해상 탐사 및 생산에는 열악한 조건에서 최대 가동 시간이 필요합니다. 유인 및 무인 시설에는 고급 원격 모니터링 기능을 갖춘 안정적인 통합 제어 및 안전 시스템 (ICSS)이 필요합니다. Yokogawa는 모든 규모와 수준의 해외 프로젝트를 수행하는 데 있어 최첨단 기술과 광범위한 경험을 보유하고 있습니다.

천연가스 공정은 천연가스 증기의 이슬점을 조절하고 판매 및 유통을 위해 액화 천연가스를 분리하도록 설계되었습니다. 오일 및 응축수 제거, 수분 제거, 액화 천연가스 분리 및 황 및 이산화탄소 제거는 업스트림 저류에서 유입되는 원료 내의 불순물을 분리하는 데 사용되는 공정입니다. 분별 화 공정은 메탄, 프로판, 부탄 및 펜탄으로 구성될 수 있는 가스 처리 설비에서 Liquid Stream을 얻고 별개의 성분으로 판매되기 전 불순물 처리 공장으로 보내질 수 있는 성분들을 분리된 분별 증류탑에서 처리합니다.

Overview:

INPEX Corporation (INPEX) is Japan's biggest oil and gas development company and is involved in all aspects of this business, from research to exploration, production, and sales. INPEX is engaged in projects all over the world, in a total of 29 countries, including Japan, where it operates a gas production plant near Oyazawa, a town in Niigata prefecture.

Overview:
  • Exapilot improves operations and reduces energy use at PTT Khanom Gas Separation Plant #4.
  • This is a real solution package and a good tool for the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle to achieve operational excellence in the plant.
Overview:
  • Yokogawa receives award for hot cutover of BP Sharjah plant DCS.
  • Yokogawa was selected by BP as main automation contractor (MAC) for a project to replace the Sharjah plant's existing legacy DCS with Yokogawa CENTUM VP.
Overview:
  • Yokogawa completes automation replacement.
  • A one-team approach by BP and Yokogawa was achieved by managing the business relationship in an open, performance-focused, and collaborative manner.
Overview:
  • CACT Offshore platform reduces unplanned downtime by migrating from Legacy PLC System to reliable CENTUM CS 3000.
  • It is possible for CACT engineers to modify the system configuration, download software updates, and hot-swap I/O cards while the process control system is online.
Overview:
  • This is the first offshore platform in Thailand that is designed to make full use of FOUNDATION fieldbus technology.
  • Thanks to Yokogawa's highly reliable systems and products, a safe working environment has been achieved.
Overview:

A Malaysian Gas Processing and Transmission Company a subsidiary of the national oil & gas major, plays a prominent role in the gas business value chain. The company operates as a throughput service company providing the services of processing and transmission of gas to the power generation sectors and various customers. 

Overview:
  • World's largest control systems and PIMS for securing production over an extended period
  • Fully-automated, alarm-free operation and reduced total cost of ownership
Overview:
  • NAM needs to remotely monitor field devices and organize their maintenance schedule.
  • True value in instrument diagnostics and preventative maintenance with powerful software tools like DTM.
Overview:
  • Yokogawa revamp of control systems at NAM Den Helder plant ensures stable gas supply in the Netherlands.
  • Site survey, creation of a function design specification (FDS) from the existing TDC system database, documentation verification.
Overview:
  • Nearly 1000 FOUNDATION fieldbus devices were connected to the CENTUM CS 3000.
  • PRM provides a single window interface to all FOUNDATION fieldbus and HART devices and this gives maintenance personnel quick access.
Overview:
  • FAST/TOOLS SCADA system has helped NAM reduce its operational costs.
  • By installing this onto the existing system, the ever greater data streams became easier to manage.
Overview:
  • Online hot cut over from the legacy Honeywell TDC3000 to the Yokogawa CENTUM CS 3000.
  • The work was successfully completed 48 days ahead of schedule and without disruption to operations.
Overview:

Saudi Aramco's operations span the globe and the energy industry. The world leader in crude oil production, Saudi Aramco also owns and operates an extensive network of refining and distribution facilities, and is responsible for gas processing and transportation installations that fuel Saudi Arabia's industrial sector. An array of international subsidiaries and joint ventures deliver crude oil and refined products to customers worldwide.

Overview:
  • The plant was designed to be unmanned, except for some first-line maintenance personnel who are stationed at the plant.
  • Through the use of the latest control system and FOUNDATION™ fieldbus technology supplied by Yokogawa, process control and the diagnostic monitoring of field instrumentation is done from remote locations.
Overview:
  • System implementation through mutual trust with customer and proven IT expertise
  • Real-time data processing and file generation for office application
Overview:
  • Smooth fieldbus deployment through first-class project management and expertise
  • Reduced operating costs by utilizing the latest technology
Overview:
  • Extremely cost-effective, reliable fieldbus solution to revive control system
  • Minimized total cost of ownership and maximized total value of ownership
Overview:

Mobil Oil Indonesia (MOI) identified Yokogawa as its vendor of choice for all natural gas exploration installations in the north of Sumatra.

Overview:

Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) is the Netherlands' largest natural gas producer. In addition to onshore fields, NAM operates manned platforms and four unmanned monotowers in 19 offshore locations. These connect to a pipeline network that comes ashore at Den Helder. 

Overview:
  • Effeciently controls the inlet valve and blow-off valve when the compressor starts and stops.
  • During steady operation, controls the inlet valve so that the amount of discharged compressed air becomes constant (flow control)
  • Surging: Load decreases, the amount of discharge flow and pressure drop, and a limit is exceeded, possibly destroying the compressor.
Overview:

STARDOM field control node (FCN) autonomous controllers allow both Modbus master and slave functions to run simultaneously.

Overview:

Gas flow data calculated by an RTU can be sent back to a transmitter using the two-way communications capability of FOUNDATION fieldbus.

Overview:

To make the most of the advantages of GPRS, Yokogawa's STARDOM FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs and FAST/TOOLS SCADA package have several functions that reduce the number of packets that must be sent. This dramatically lowers communication fees.

Overview:

Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.

Application Note
Overview:

Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.

Application Note
Overview:

One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.

Overview:

The major methods of improved oil recovery are water flooding and steam injection. "These technologies make a tremendous contribution to recovering additional oil from old wells as well as improve primary recovery of operating oil fields."

Overview:

HART communication is a means of transmitting multiple signals by superimposing long-standard 4-20 mA DC analog signals on digital signals. The figure below is an example of connecting field instruments and upstream devices using HART communication compatible VJA1/H signal conditioners.

Overview:

The paperless recorder DX series instruments allow you to determine temperature and humidity, and manage the results as manufacturing and quality data at a reasonable cost with a simple configuration.

Overview:

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.

Overview:

Yokogawa provides controller embedded flow calculation library based on AGA (American Gas Association) reports.

Overview:

This paper introduces the ADMAG AXR 2-wire magnetic flomwmeter solution for chilled water application in air conditioning unit.

Overview:

Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry. Because the large amount of fuel such as gas or fuel oil which is consumed in these processes, their combustion efficiency directly affects the performance and operational costs of the production facilities.

Overview:

Floating-point format calculations have enabled physical quantities (in engineering units) to be used in calculations.

Overview:
  • Compressor start and stop
    The inlet valve and blow-off valve are controlled efficiently.
  • During steady-state operation
    The inlet valve is controlled to regulate the blow-off flow rate of the compressed air. (Flow control)
Application Note
Overview:

Risk management is crucial when expanding your business.

Overview:

Industrial Combustion sources such as thermal cracking furnaces and, process heaters play a critical role in the process industry.

Overview:

ISA100 wireless pressure transmitters

Overview:

The client wanted to monitor the pressure of the gas well at offshore platform remotely to reduce maintenance cost and increase safety of maintenance personnel.

Overview:

The client wanted to monitor the injection gas pressure of gas lift remotely in central control room. Antitheft measures are needed to install new equipments and cables.

Overview:

ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters.

Application Note
Overview:

A battery room is used to storage batteries for emergency power management in the plant. Each substation has battery room and the storage batteries are lead-acid batteries which must be maintained within specified operating temperature limits. Temperature management is important to ensure a long service life of the batteries especially for the plant in desert climates.

Overview:

Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.

Overview:

Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.

Overview:

Tuning PID controllers can seem a mystery. Parameters that provide effective control over a process one day fail to do so the next. The stability and responsiveness of a process seem to be at complete odds with each other. And controller equations include subtle differences that can baffle even the most experienced practitioners. 

Overview:

The worlds of process automation and production management have been converging for some time. What once used to be islands of automation and production management functionality connected through highly proprietary integration schemes that were costly to maintain have developed into integrated platforms that provide seamless data exchange between the world of automation and the plant floor, the functions of production and operations management, and integration with business level systems.

Overview:

The world of process automation is governed by procedures. While we like to refer to the process industries as being largely "continuous", this could not be further from the truth. Process manufacturing is constantly in flux.

Overview:

From engineering to installation, commissioning, operations, and maintenance, FOUNDATION fieldbus offer significant cost reductions of 30 percent or more versus conventional analog systems. Many of these cost reductions come from the advanced functions that fieldbus offers versus analog technology.

Overview:

The automation suppliers that will be successful in the long term will be those that effectively address application or industry specific problems for end users with a value proposition that cannot be ignored. These problems exist throughout the process industries today, and they won't be solved by simply offering a product, but through a combination of hardware, software, services, application expertise, and knowledge.

Overview:

In ARC's view, customers need a compelling business value proposition to justify investment in any kind of automation. Vigilance and VigilantPlant were created with this in mind. Yokogawa's vision with VigilantPlant is to create an environment where plant personnel and operators are well informed, alert, and ready to take action. 

Overview:

Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.

Overview:

Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.

Overview:

In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.

Overview:

Migration of a refinery's DCS provided an opportunity to reconfigure and consolidate the control rooms and operational management system.

Overview:

July 2011

Process plants are run according to operational procedures. These procedures consist of a set of tasks that are executed in a consistent manner to achieve a specific objective, such as starting up, shutting down or transitioning a unit as part of making a product. 

Overview:

September 2009

Partnering with Saudi Aramco, Yokogawa is providing local project execution including testing and implementing a continuing policy of Saudisation.

Overview:

August 2006

Many published papers discuss the benefits of subsea HIPPS and many studies show the potential cost-benefit analysis of this technology in deepwater applications. An internet search for subsea HIPPS is informative; however, little appears that discusses the systems already delivered and operating successfully.

Overview:

Chevron turns to deeper relationships with fewer suppliers to increase project execution consistency

Overview:

Using wireless for gas detection is a very flexible method, and allowed ExxonMobil to establish it as a redundant system

Overview:

Trinity integrated Systems' iDefine Suite reduces errors and streamlines design of safety instrumented systems

Overview:

Pipeline & Gas Journal, February 2014

The line of functionality between supervisory control and data acquisition and distributed control system is blurring.  These two traditionally disparate technologies are now seen as competitors in similar application environments.

Overview:

Offshore, February 2013

Offshore and deep-water production has been a significant factor in the sustained growth of the oil and gas industries over the past decade and this trend is expected to continue beyond 2013. 

Interviews

    Overview:

    How much do you know about pressure transmitters? Are you accurately, quickly and reliably measuring pressure? Ultimately, the drive of any good pressure transmitter is to get an accurate, reliable pressure measurement to the data user quickly. This video gives you the answers to your basic questions about pressure and pressure transmitters.

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