横河电机提供IoT Enabled ISA100兼容网关、接入点、媒体转换器和管理站。通过以上基础设施来设计满足用户需求的网络。
Wireless Noise Surveillance is a new digital HSE system to provide a real time sound noise map monitoring system.
2018.03.06 出版“网关模块”（FN110-R1 / LN90）手册。
2017.11.21 出版手册“横河电机ISA100 Wireless™网关模块—构建小型现场无线系统的理想选择。
2017.03.23 横河电机和Cosasco签订销售ISA100 Wireless™产品的协议—改善维护和增强安全性 – （请参阅 Cosasco网站: http://www.cosasco.com/）
2016.12.08 横河电机发布开发出基于ISA100 Wireless标准的现场无线振动传感器—数据更新快、电池寿命长。（参见FN510现场无线多功能模块）。
2016.08.10 横河电机发布通用设备管理工具FieldMate® R3.02 – 显著降低设备维护的工作量 -
2016.07.21 Murata 开始2.4 GHz宽带无线通信模块(已获得ISA100无线兼容认证)的批量生产。
2016.06.17 横河电机发布FN310和FN510 (ATEX认证)。
2016.04.22 横河电机发布FN110、FN310和FN510 (“美国和加拿大”FM认证和IECEx认证)。
2016.02.22 横河电机与挪威国家石油公司达成协议，共同开发现场无线系统 –实时监控工厂噪声水平。
2016.01.05 横河电机发布新宣传样本“横河电机现场无线解决方案”(BU 01W01A13-01EN)。
2015.07.03 横河电机发布工厂资源管理器(PRM)R3.20，包括ISA100 Wireless&trade现场设备改进的管理功能。
新的理念 "Wireless Anywhere"
为本演示设计的系统是由Flowserve(福斯)公司的标准无线D3阀门定位器和横河电机的旗舰型综合生产控制系统“CENTUM® VP”、无线网关设备和DPharp EJX B系列无线差压/压力变送器组成的。现场无线设备全部符合WCI (ISA100 Wireless Compliance Institute)的ISA100 Wireless™，其特点是数据更新周期只有1秒钟，可以快速更新数据。利用冗余无线通信路径可以确保高可靠性。
您是否为获得适当覆盖范围而在无线传感器网络中增加额外的中继器和设备而烦恼？那么，请切换到横河电机的ISA100.11a无线系统，使用更少的硬件覆盖更大的区域，从而节省资金。使用横河的远程天线可选项，横河电机的接入点和无线变送器可以在设备间可靠传输3.4 km。这意味着在一个标准的4hops网络中，横河电机的无线系统能够覆盖半径13.6 km的区域。
Delayed Coker is a type of coker who's process consists of heating residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a furnace. The most important variable in industrial furnace control is temperature. Temperature is measured throughout the furnace in different zones and temperature effects the materials being manufactured and therefore must be precisely monitored to prevent deviations in quality of the final product.
The client wanted to monitor the temperature on a chimney. Exhaust air is exposed to the heat on the way traveling from the inlet to the outlet in the chimney. Then constituent of the air transform to harmless elements. It is important to keep the temperature in the chimney as designed.
A battery room is used to storage batteries for emergency power management in the plant. Each substation has battery room and the storage batteries are lead-acid batteries which must be maintained within specified operating temperature limits. Temperature management is important to ensure a long service life of the batteries especially for the plant in desert climates.
Repeater is installed on high place between control room and monitor position. The extend cable is used for antenna of Gateway.
Geothermal power plants create electricity from geothermal energy. These power plants are similar to other steam turbine station; however their heat source is that of the earth's core. The created steam is used to turn the turbine for the production of electricity. Technologies include Dry steam, Flash steam and Binary cycle power stations with Binary cycle being the most common geothermal plant in current production. In the process of geothermal power generation the facility needs to monitor various processes, as in this case steam line pressure sits in remote from control room's location.
Employ the ISA100.11a-compliant YTMX580 Multipoint Wireless Transmitter. The YTMX580 has 8 channels of universal input, which is perfect for multipoint measurement applications, and it can withstand harsh operating temperatures of -40 to 85 °C.
Pressure measurement of tubeless tyres to monitor the air loss is one of the key performance tests in the tyre manufacturing units. Relocation of tyres from one testing rack to the other for various tests and frequent movement of the testing setup for conditional tests to various locations calls for cable free implementation for ease of handling.
A horizontal rotary miller used to grind the limestone rocks with metallic balls as grinding stones. This is used as the raw ingredient to produce cement powder. The temperature needs to be monitored in order to control the process and the quality of the final product. The user was using an induction temperature measurement based on a rail system that was very fragile and therefore unreliable.
Both bulk and finished inventories are stored in distributed tank farm remote from the site operations. These are difficult to instrument due to the infrastructure cost involved. These are then monitored daily by patrol rounds. While effective, this method does require a large skilled labor force to monitor all of tanks. This can impose an additional risk when the stored medium is of a hazardous nature.
Blending plays a key role in industries such as food, healthcare and chemicals etc. Temperature and vacuum measurements are very important in minimizing the moisture content to ensure the quality of the final product. Strictly maintaining them throughout the process ensures the final product yield.
Temperature plays a key role in storage of Molasses to maintain the chemical properties of molasses. When temperature rises over 40.5 degree C, destruction of structure in sugar occurs, which results in losing the feeding property of molasses. There is also a safety concern that a rise in temperature can lead to a rise in storage tank pressure leading to an explosion of the tank.
Direct Reduction Iron (DRI) is one of the processes to reduce oxygen from iron oxide pellets for steel plant. More than 90% of DRI processes use heated LNG as process gas where PID control for temperature or interlock control is of vital importance.
Customer needed efficiency improvement of steel manufacturing by temperature monitoring for heat/cooling equipment. Previous system required periodic compensation lead changing.
An induction furnace melts metal by creating very large currents in the material. These currents are induced using three electrodes positioned inside the furnace. The furnace is automated so that once the material has been melted, the electrodes are removed and the furnace then tips the molten metal into a crucible where it can be easily transferred to the production line where it will be cast into ingots. The atmosphere is extremely aggressive and the wired infrastructure is both expensive and very unreliable to maintain. The furnace control requires a total of 20 measurement points distributed around and inside the furnace. The harmonic field effects caused by short circuit 40,000 A (300V). The causes significant interference.
Caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, produced in electrolyzer plants, are fundamental materials used in varieties of industries; chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petrol-chemicals, pulp and papers, etc. Profit is the result of the effective production with minimized running / maintenance cost. Proper control of the process brings you stabilized quality of products with the vast operational profit.
Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. The improved plant performance translates to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation.
One important risk to manage with regard to coal stacks is preventing fires due to spontaneous combustion.
The use of wireless technology in industrial automation systems offers a number of potential benefits, from the obvious cost reduction brought about by the elimination of wiring to the availability of better plant information, improved productivity and better asset management. However, its practical implementation faces a number of challenges: not least the present lack of a universally agreed standard. This article looks at some of these challenges and presents the approach being taken by Yokogawa.
Standards provide many benefits to the automation end user. Standards promote choice, interoperability, transparency and ensure that things work as they should (at least insofar as the standard is defined). The influx of wireless technology into the world of process automation has brought forth its own standard—ISA100—a major standards initiative managed by the International Society of Automation (ISA).
When distributed control systems (DCS) first appeared on the industrial automation scene in the mid-1970s, the focus was on control and operator interface. While control and human machine interface (HMI) are still important, today's DCSs have evolved to place increased emphasis on integrating plant-wide asset and operational information to enable operational excellence.
Wireless trends: Choosing a wireless network requires evaluation of communication protocols, device availability, and present future user needs.
Temperature control of exhaust gasses coming off various combustion processes in refineries and related facilities is often critical to effective pollution abatement and compliance with applicable regulations. There are specific temperature windows where toxic gasses can form or other substances can condense, causing corrosion and other harmful effects, so operators need to make sure the process is running at the correct levels.
Stacks, chimneys and other gas handling equipment can take all sorts of forms depending on the application. Some may include scrubbers, gas cooling, chemical injection, afterburners or ambient air mixing—but a common element is the need for effective temperature measurement of the gas at various points in chimneys (Figure 1).
Given the length and height of a chimney, its associated ductwork and ancillary systems—there can be dozens of sensors inserted at strategic points from one end to the other—providing the process automation system and the plant operators with critical temperature data. These sensors are often in hard-to-reach locations where installation and maintenance are difficult. While these sensors are often spread over a great distance, they must connect back to one central point where the larger gas treatment system is controlled.
Figure 1. Chimneys found in refineries and other hydrocarbon processing facilities often require temperature monitoring.
At a refinery in the Americas, the main chimney is located 300 m away from the main control room, and there are about 30 temperature sensors mounted on the structure, the highest of which are 30 m above the ground. Wiring for such an installation was going to very challenging, so the company instead installed an ISA100 wireless network.
When the refinery was designing the system initially, it was clear the cost of individual wireless transmitters for each temperature sensor would be expensive and take too long to install. To alleviate these issues, the refinery selected Yokogawa YTMX580 Multi-Input Temperature Transmitters, each of which can accept up to eight individual sensors and send the data back via a single wireless transmitter (Figure 2). Each unit can accommodate a variety of RTD and thermocouple types to meet application demands.
This approach minimizes the amount of required wiring while also cutting the cost of the wireless infrastructure. Four of these multi-input transmitters are installed at the facility to service the group of temperature sensors, eliminating the need to add cabling to the control room. The plant’s wireless network backhaul infrastructure brings data from the chimney to the operators so they can monitor system performance in real time.
The success of this installation has given the plant the confidence to extend the ISA100 wireless network using Yokogawa’s Plantwide Field Wireless infrastructure.
Figure 2. Wiring temperature sensors installed in a chimney back to a control room can be challenging and expensive, so many plants and facilities are instead implementing wireless solutions, such as this Yokogawa YTMX580 8-input temperature transmitter.
The greatest advantage of native wireless field instrument and actuator devices is their lack of cables for data transmission or power. Eliminating these tethers also eliminates their associated costs in time and money for installation and ongoing maintenance. Companies have adopted the ISA100 wireless standard for a variety of reasons, but the most critical is its ability to support reliable communication in process manufacturing environments. ISA100.11a (IEC 62734) was designed through cooperation among device and system vendors working with process automation end users to create a platform able to satisfy all involved. Figure 1 illustrates a typical device-level network topology using ISA100.11a wireless instruments.
Figure 1. The ISA100.11a network exists at the device level, supporting communications between field instruments and actuators.
Wireless field devices provide many possibilities for operational cost reductions along with improved performance and facility management. But in many existing plants, most field devices are already installed on wired networks, which often are not capable of providing all the information available from HART-compliant smart devices. Wireless can be used with new devices, but it can also extend the communication capabilities of existing instrumentation, realizing their diagnostic and other extended capabilities.
Unless there is something seriously wrong with existing wired networks, no end user is going to rip out and replace working wired devices in a process plant. However, when new devices are added, the plant may decide not to extend the wired networks. New field instruments and actuators may be available as self-contained wireless devices, or they may only be made in a conventional wired version. Those of the latter category will need to be configured to communicate with a wireless network by adding a wireless adapter.
A wireless adapter can function in two modes. First, it can add complete wireless communication capability to a conventional wired instrument. All the data from the device can be sent via the wireless network without the need for any data cables.
Second, it can extend the communication capability of an existing wired device. Many wired device-level networks are not capable of communicating any information beyond the most basic analog signal representing the measured process variable. Smart devices installed on such a network cannot send the additional information they generate, stranding it at the source. Adding a wireless adapter allows it to send the additional information using the wireless network, while continuing to use the wired network for the transmission of the process variable.
When an adapter is added to a conventional wired device, there are multiple powering options. The adapter can be outfitted with its own internal power supply and function independently. If the instrument needs power, the adapter can support it, eliminating the need for power cables.
The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module is designed to work with HART-compliant field devices and provides a range of basic communication and operational functions:
Figure 2 shows an example of how to use the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module with HART-compliant devices. This adapter has all the necessary ISA100 communication functions built in and only requires connection to the field device.
Figure 2. The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be connected to a HART-compliant device. The module mounts separately, allowing it to be positioned for most effective wireless propagation regardless of where teh instrument is located.
There are many ways in which the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be used in a process plant, but most applications fall into one of these categories:
Realizing full functionality of existing devices while saving on cabling costs, installation hassles, and future maintenance.
Most plants have large numbers of HART-compliant devices installed to monitor and control all manner of process variables (Figure 3). Most of these are connected via wired device-level networks. The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module converts these into ISA100.11a-compliant wireless devices without any modifications. If a plant or process unit requires renovation, the plant can decide to repair and maintain the wired network, or simply eliminate parts of it. If it costs $100 per meter of cable installation in explosion-proof zones, replacing just 100 meters of cabling with wireless means saving $10,000 in site work. In the case of a major plant upgrade, where sensing points are being removed or where aging cables must be replaced, wireless adapters allow the use of existing HART-compliant devices without cable reinstallation and maintenance.
Figure 3. Any HART-compliant field device can be mated with the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module.
Extending wireless communication to conventional devices.
Companies embracing wireless field devices and networks may be constrained by the limited selection of native wireless devices available today. While the range of choices is growing, some types of devices, particularly those with high power consumption, are only available in conventional wired configurations. In such cases, the Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can convert any wired HART-compliant instrument or actuator from any vendor to wireless.
Gathering and sharing data from smart devices.
While the process variables from HART-compliant devices in an existing plant are sent to the plant’s automation system through the field device network, other information, such as device condition information and other diagnostic capabilities, can be of great value to the maintenance department. It can collect and manage such data, and use it when analyzing maintenance schedules, maintenance records, repair parts usage, and so on. If the existing wired field-device network cannot extract that information and collect it for sharing interdepartmentally, those gains cannot be realized. Upgrading the network can be a complex and costly undertaking, but the information can be sent via the wireless adapter. Adding a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module allows maintenance department to capture HART commands and diagnostic information from the 4-20 mA line with little change to the installation. The adapter can work with two-wire and four-wire device types. In case of four-wire devices, an external power source can be connected to the device, making it easy to support devices with high power usage.
Deploy HART-compliant devices in remote areas where no data or power cables are available.
The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can extend power to an external device, which makes it simpler to deploy HART-compliant devices in locations where wired field-device networks don’t reach and where no power may be available. Under favorable conditions, the adapter can cover a distance up to 500 m in any direction, and more than 1 km if routers are used. For example, combining a HART-level instrument with a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module provides a means to measure the water level of rivers and reservoirs (Figure 4). And since the adapter weighs less than 1 kg including its batteries, it and its connected HART-compliant device can be moved easily, enabling flexible measurement point changes.
Extend wireless network range by acting as a router.
In situations where distances between wireless field devices are very long or where large metallic structures create barriers to effective wireless signal propagation, a Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module can be used as a router to relay communication to and from other wireless field devices (Figure 4). Another ISA100.11a native wireless instrument can serve the same function, however in many situations it may be easier to use an adapter as a dedicated router since it is light and compact. It can also be located strategically to fill out the network most effectively.
Figure 4. The geographical coverage of a network can be extended by adding routers to relay signals and reinforce weak sections of the mesh. Routers can be located wherever they can do the most for the network, separate of any specific instrument.
The Field Wireless Multi-Protocol Module is designed to convert existing wired HART-compliant instruments and valve actuators into wireless devices. It provides flexibility to add new devices in existing plants using wireless field-device data networks, reducing cabling installation and maintenance costs. It also expands the types of wireless sensors available and simplifies device installations. Many plant operators find the wireless adapter to be a useful device able to help existing plants enjoy the benefit of wireless sensing.
One of the first steps when creating a new wireless instrumentation network using ISA-100 wireless, or any other industrial wireless network, is a site survey. This step is not part of any wireless standard, nor is it likely part of any network management platform, so it requires some creativity. Radio propagation patterns can be difficult to predict, but following a few basic design guidelines ensures a much higher level of success.
Some wireless consultants make the process very complex using simulations and reading test signals, but these often do not ultimately match the real world. Other approaches are simpler and involve taking a few distance measurements and establishing sight lines, which often works just as well. For this article, we will concentrate more on the latter, simpler approach.
ANSI/ISA-100.11a-2011 (IEC 62734), Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications, networks are designed to support wireless field instrumentation. This protocol specification is part of the larger ISA-100 wireless series. Although network management platforms have an extraordinary capability for self-organization, this feature cannot overcome unreliable radio links.
But, the network management platform can use its diagnostic capabilities to measure the health of the communication and the devices. It can identify unreliable links so they can be fixed, and with improved communication, the network manager can reestablish a reliable link.
Although it is not a perfect model, thinking of radio in the same way as visible light is accurate much of the time. Wireless networks depend largely on line of sight (LOS). If a wireless flow meter is trying to transmit to a gateway in its LOS, the likelihood of a good link is very high. More potential obstructions are transparent to radio frequencies than visible light, but this is affected by frequency. A leafy tree is transparent to signals at 90 MHz, but 2.4-GHz signals will suffer some attenuation.
Metallic objects are the great enemy of radio propagation, but can also help under the right conditions, which is why refineries and chemical plants provide many challenges for wireless networks. In one case, a steel-shell storage tank can be helpful by reflecting a signal, while other times it is as an obstacle. Like visible light, much depends on the surface angles.
General wireless principles say to avoid metallic surfaces when placing antennas for field devices, such as process instruments and actuators, routers, and gateways. The best situation is to mount the antenna vertically so that it is unobstructed on all sides (figure 1). If a gateway is mounted next to a metallic pole, the signal will be attenuated, even on the side away from the pole. It is far better to move the antenna to the top of the pole, so it can extend into free space, or to extend the antenna mounting horizontally, so there is at least a 1-meter gap between the antenna and the pole.
Figure 1. For the best signal propagation, each antenna should be mounted vertically with at least 1 m of clear space around it horizontally. This normally means mounting the antenna as high on a structure as possible.
Elevated antenna placement is important, because radio communication does not move in a tight beam like a laser. To send the signal from one point to another efficiently, some area in the shape of an ellipse is required. This area is called the Fresnel zone (figure 2). The amount of room available for the signal to spread has a huge effect on signal strength and the distance it can carry, since the longer the distance, the fatter the zone needs to be in the center. Anything violating the zone, which could even be the ground itself, attenuates the strength. Therefore, trying to squeeze a signal through a narrow space, even though it may allow direct LOS, can result in signal attenuation.
For example, where the LOS side clearance has an open space with a radius of 4 m, the communication range can be 500 m. However, when trying to send the signal through a more constricted area where the open space radius is only 2 m, the effective distance will be cut by 75 percent to 128 m. Having open, unobstructed space makes a huge difference, but this is typically a problem in most congested plant environments. This is why mounting devices and antennas as high as possible is so important.
Figure 2. Radio waves tend to propagate through an elliptical space formed between the two antennas. The longer the distance, the larger the required diameter at the center. This space should be as unobstructed as possible to avoid signal attenuation.
ISA-100.11a has mechanisms for device-to-device meshing, but the more desired network topology is one where a field device can communicate directly with the gateway, or directly to a router connected to the gateway (figure 3). The goal is to avoid the need for meshing device-to-device, because sending signals between multiple field devices slows down data movement and taxes the devices' batteries.
To facilitate these transmissions, gateways and routers should be mounted as high as practical to clear any surrounding equipment and permit clear LOS connections. My company calls this practice of having a mesh of routers communicating above the plant equipment a sky mesh, and it takes advantage of more powerful transmitters than are practical for individual wireless field devices.
Placement of individual field devices is not as simple. Most native wireless devices, such as a differential pressure instrument, have an integral wireless transmitter and antenna (figure 4). This is very convenient, but can complicate signal propagation. Placement in the process piping or vessel often dictates where the device must be mounted, the antenna orientation, and the surrounding obstructions. Using an antenna extension can address these issues. Another alternative is to add a router mounted as near to the instrument as possible and clear of obstructions. If more than one instrument is in the same difficult location, a single router can service a group.
Figure 3. The gateway is the end point of the network, and is connected to the control and monitoring system via hardwiring. Routers serve as relay points, gathering information from the field devices and passing it to the gateway.
Figure 4. Having an antenna mounted on the field device is common, but placement of the field device may put it in a location prone to interference. An external add-on antenna may be needed to improve communication.
Most networks are designed from two ends, the field and the control room. Field devices must be located according to their process function, which could easily be in a congested pipe jungle where equipment interferes with clear signal propagation. The final gateway is often placed near the control room, because it is hardwired to the control system. The network must bridge this gap.
Creating a sky mesh requires finding where it is practical to place routers. Ideally, these should be high off the ground and as close to the individual field devices as possible. Ensuring reliable communication between the field devices and the nearest sky mesh router may involve a secondary router in between to compensate for signal loss.
In most process plants, it is not difficult to find tall structures, such as distillation columns, but they may not be located where they are useful for router placement. Positioning antenna to avoid signal blockage problems associated with such large metallic structures can be tricky. As a rule of thumb, if the router is placed 30 m above the ground, it can reach individual field devices close to ground level up to 50 m away (figure 5). This assumes a few beneficial reflections, balanced against some obstructions from piping.
The connection from each field device to the closest router is the most challenging because it often has the most obstructions. Communication between routers and the gateway is easier to visualize and evaluate, since those components are mounted higher above the process equipment in more open space.
Figure 5. Routers in high positions can reach down to communicate with field devices closer to ground level. The practical area of coverage under favorable conditions is roughly a 90º to a 100º cone, with the router as the cone's apex.
The two most common measures of network performance are bit error rate (BER) and packet error rate (PER). The former uses predetermined bit patterns to check which are received incorrectly, a process requiring dedicated software on all the field devices, routers, and gateways. It must be performed as a specific test, sending the designated patterns.
PER performance measurements, on the other hand, deal with complete packets and can be done without special tools during normal communication. If a problem is developing, there will be a detectable change in the PER.
The most important indicator is determining how often packets get through correctly the first time. Getting the PER as low as possible is the objective, but this can only be done when all radio links are working reliably.
A well-designed ISA-100.11a wireless instrumentation network can operate as dependably as wired I/O in most applications. When the communication links connect reliably, latency will be minimized, allowing control room operators and other plant personnel to have all the information they need in a timely manner.
The introduction of wireless into industrial monitoring and control not only reduces wiring and maintenance costs but also expands its applications to include those which are impossible with wired systems, such as monitoring points which have to be given up due to the difficulty of the construction, and monitoring of points on rotating or frequently moved objects.
- 即将发布HART®和Modbus型 -
-Frost & Sullivan 2014年度全球使能技术领袖奖-
- 提供包括咨询和工程在内的整体系统解决方案 -
- 构建小型现场无线系统的理想选择 -