Integrated steel plants usually consist of five main units, Viz; Coal washery, Coke oven blast furnace, steel melting shop and rolling mills. In addition to the above the plants may have auxiliary units like oxygen plant and power plant for their own uses.
Coal Washer and its Wastewater
The coal needs some processing to make it suitable for use in coke ovens. The main objective of such treatment is the removal of solid foreign matter present in the coal. Generally the process in a coal washer includes crushing, screening and wet washing of coal. In the wet process the coal is separated from the impurities using the principal of differential settling. Water used for washing is recycled and reused after sedimentation. But in spite of all care taken to ensure maximum reuse, appreciable quantity of wash water containing coal fines, and other impurities like clay and small amounts of other minerals like calcite, gypsum, pyrite etc, comes out as waste, normally in a thickened form as the under- flow of the sedimentation tank.
Blast Furnace and its Wastewater
Blast furnace is a basic unit in an integrated steel plant. Essentially the blast furnace process consists of charging iron ore and coke as fuel limestone and dolomite as fluxing material into the top of the furnace and blowing heated air (blast) into the bottom. Pig iron is the metallic product of this unit. Appreciable quantity of water is used in blast furnace for the purpose of cooling and gas cleaning operations. However, the cooling water normally remains un-contaminated and is reused after cooling.
The entire quantum of wastewater originates from the gas cleaning operations. The blast furnace gas, which is heavily loaded with flue dust, is cleaned in a three stage process.
The major portion of the flue dust which comes out along with blast furnace gas is recovered by the dry dust catchers. The remaining is removed by washing with water by “Wet Scrubbing”. The portion which escapes wet scrubber may be removed by electrostatic precipitator. In wet scrubber the down flow water sprays clean the dust from the up flowing gases and the wastewater contains 1000-10000 mg/l of suspended solids.
Characteristics of Typical Blast Furnace Waste
|Total Dissolved Solids||346 - 500 mg/l|
|Total Suspended Solids||1000 - 10500 mg/l|
|Dissolved Solids||80 - 118 mg/l as CaCO3|
|Total Hardness||230 mg/l as CaCO3|
|Total Alkalinty||380 mg/l as CaCO3|
|Chlorides||210 - 250 mg/l|
|pH||7.3 - 8.2|
Treatment of Blast Furnace Waste
The blast furnace waste contains about 40% of the total dust coming out of the blast furnace along with the flue gas. Iron oxide and silica comprise about 70% and 12% respectively of the flue dust content. The waste can be treated in a clariflocculator even without the addition of coagulant. However the flocculation time can be reduced to a great extent when certain coagulants like alum or lime is added. The efficiency of the clariflocculator can be increased alternatively by a judicious mixing of this waste with the other wastes of the steel plant. The oxygen plant waste containing sodium hydroxide, may be used for this purpose.
Typical Process Details
Process: sticky nature of the slurry.
Slurry quality - Solid blast furnace GCP (Gas Cleaning Plant) containing fine particles of iron oxide, dust, coal dust.
- Solid density: 1600 kg/m3,
- Slurry temperature: 65°(Maximum)
- Density of slurry water: 1-1.2 ton/m3
- Total suspended solids: 50 – 250 gram/liter
Tentative range of particle size distribution as below:
|Particle size (in micron)||% by weight|
|0 - 5||13 - 33|
|5 - 10||13 - 17|
|10 - 20||15 - 18|
|20 - 40||17 - 21|
|40 - 60||10 - 40|
|60 - 100||6 - 15|
|> 100||4 - 10|
The slurry has high deposition rate while it is not flowing.
|Location||Inlet to pH correction tank|
|Fluid||GCP Slurry, BF application|
|Flow in m3 hour||1150|
|Velocity in m/sec||1.5|
|Temperature||60 to 70 degC|
|Inlet pressure in Bar (g)||open to atmosphere|
|pH value||3.0 to 9.0|
|Specific gravity of sludge||1-1.5|
|Bulk density of solid (kg/m3)|
|Suspended solid material||Sinter, ore, flux, coke, coal at difference|
|Fluid density in kg/m3||990-1078|
|TSS (ppm)||500 - 30000|
|Nature||Fluid is very sticky in nature|
- Coating on the sensor.
- Frequent cleaning
- Coating can be cleaned off by diluted acid
- Use appropriate sensor with suitable fitting.
More reliable and accurate analysis of pH which helps to improve end product quality.
Process Liquid Analyzer:
- 2-wire FLEXA pH/ORP Analyzer
- Dual sensor measurement on 2-wire type analyzer
- Indication of sensor wellness
- 4-wire FLXA402 pH/ORP Analyzer
- Connectable to up to five sensor
- Easily viewable color LCD
- Touch screen operation
FU20 all-in-one pH sensor with dome shaped membrane.
- With the body made of Ryton, a strong engineering plastic, which is comparable to Teflon in terms of corrosion resistance and heat resistance, it allows for a wide range of applications.
- The integrated-sensor design simplifies calibration with standard solutions and maintenance.
- Alternatively, SENCOM sensor can be used. (FU20F)
Note: For additional information on this application contact the local Yokogawa Process Liquid Analyzer Department
- FLEXA™ series analyzers FLXA202
- Continuous on-line industrial measurements
- Most flexible two-wire analyzer available
The FLEXA™ series analyzers are used for continuous on-line measurements in industrial installations. With an option for single or dual sensor measurement, they are the most flexible two-wire analyzer available.
The FU20 and FU24, all-in-one pH and ORP, sensors show how Yokogawa applies the motto "Simple is best" to sensor technology.
Reusable SMART adapter, requiring only the analog sensor to be disposed of when it reaches the end of its lifetime. With the SENCOM 4.0 platform, Yokogawa delivers reduced costs and waste while contributing to its long-term business goals of a sustainable future for all.
The FLEXA™ series analyzers are modular-designed analyzers used for continuous online measurements in industrial installations. They offer single or multi-sensor measurement.
pH and ORP meters, analyzers and transmitters are used for continuous process monitoring of pH and ORP to ensure water/product quality, monitor effluent discharge, batch neutralization, pulp stock, scrubbers, cooling towers, chemical, water/wastewater treatment and many other applications.
- SENCOM™ SMART Digital Sensors
- Maintain specific measurement/calibration data on integrated chip
- Data exchanged between sensor and process transmitter or PC using data management software like SPS24
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