Life Science

Early stage embryo

A portfolio of flexible life science products and solutions for the regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical research, and precision medicine industries.

Yokogawa’s high content analysis systems and dual spinning disk technologies are known for higher product quality, more individualized systems tuning, and better process control. From design to implementation and startup to continuous optimization, Yokogawa has the experience and technology to solve your greatest challenges.

  • Spinning Disk Confocal CSU

    • Yokogawa’s Spinning Disk Confocal Scanner Units (CSUs) real-time live-cell imaging 
    • Proprietary Microlens-Enhanced Dual Spinning Disk design
    • Transform optical microscopes 
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  • Bioreactor

    • Real-time monitoring
    • Advanced bioreactor process control
    • Bioreactors automate lab-scale mammalian cell cultures
    • Detecting viable cell densities and glucose and lactate concentrations with high accuracy
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  • Single-Cell Analysis Solution

    Equipped with a minimally-invasive nanopipette, our Single Cellome UnitTM is capable of injecting target substances while maintaining the positional information of individual cells.

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Principles of Spinning Disk Confocal

The most common conventional confocal microscopes use a single laser beam to scan a specimen, while the CSU scans the field of view with approximately 1,000 laser beams by using microlens-enhanced Nipkow-disk scanning. In short, CSU can scan 1,000 times faster.

By using a disk containing microlens arrays in combination with the Nipkow disk, we have succeeded in dramatically improving the light efficiency and therefore successfully made real-time confocal imaging of live cells possible.

The expanded and collimated laser beam illuminates the upper disk containing about 20,000 microlenses (microlens array disk). Each microlens focuses the laser beam onto its corresponding pinhole, thus effectively increasing laser intensity through pinholes placed in the pinhole array disk (Nipkow disk).

With the microlens, backscattering of laser light at the surface of the pinhole disk can be significantly reduced, dramatically increasing the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of confocal images.

About 1,000 laser beams passing through each of the pinholes fill the aperture of the objective lens, and are then focused on the focal plane. Fluorescence generated from the specimen is captured by the objective lens and focused back onto the pinhole disk, transmitted through the same holes to eliminate out-of-focus signals, deflected by the dichroic mirror located between microlens array disk and the Nipkow disk to split fluorescence signal from reflected laser, passed through emission filter and then focused into the image plane in the eyepiece or camera.

The microlens array disk and the Nipkow disk are physically fixed to each other and are rotated to scan the entire field of view at high speeds, making it possible to view confocal fluorescent images in real-time through the eyepiece of the CSU head.

Compared to conventional single point scanning, multi beam scanning by the CSU requires a significantly low level of light intensity per unit area, which results in significantly reduced photo bleaching and phototoxicity in live cells.

Spinning Disk Confocal

microlens / fastsacnning / minimal photo bleach / high resolution

Microlens-enhanced Nipkow Disk Technology

Microlens-enhanced Nipkow Disk Technology

Comparison of scanning method

point scanning

Point Scanning
1 line scan time=1[ms]
1000 lines/image
Scan lines=1000 [lines]
1×1000=1000 [ms]

disk scanning

Disk Scanning by CSU
Rotation Speed=10000 [rpm]=41.7[rps]
1÷( 41.7×30/360 )= 0.5 [ms]



What is a Confocal Scanner Unit?

Confocal scanner unit CSU series enable 3D observation of the cells in detail and dynamics of organelles inside cells. Since the CSU series is capable of high-speed shooting, it is also suitable for observing high-speed life phenomena. In addition, the CSU series is a multi-point confocal method which is extremely gentle to cells, best suitable for long-term live cell observation.


Industrial Applications & Types of Confocal Scanner Units

For pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic developers

  • Evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity by using cultured cells instead of expensive animal experiments
  • Evaluation experiments using cell clusters (spheroids, organoids), which have been extensively researched in recent years
  • Evaluation of effects of functional foods on cells
  • Efficacy evaluation of cosmetics by using 3D skin model
  • Confirmation of stem cell differentiation state and quality evaluation for regenerative medicine


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Benefits of Confocal Scanner Units

Yokogawa spinning disk confocal technologies:

  • High-efficiency imaging
  • Less photobleaching and phototoxicity
  • Less expensive

CSU- W1:

  • FOV is 4x wider than other conventional industry models
  • Capable of fully automated experiments
  • Multiple configurations
  • Selectable pinhole size


  • World's fastest scanning speed of up to 2,000 fps
  • Microlens-enhanced Nipkow disk scanning
  • Exchangeable dichroic mirror block and emission filters
  • O2 emissions reduced by 40%



Visualizing the cell behavioral basis of epithelial morphogenesis and epithelial cancer progression


Faster, Deeper, and Clearer -in vivo molecular imaging technology-


Discovering the Basic Principles of Life through the Live Imaging of C. elegans


Closing in on Neuronal Circuit Dynamics through High-speed, fMCI.


New Era in Manmmalian Genetics Research: To utilize the same embryo after long-time 3D observation!


Getting Closer to “Plant Cell World”with High-speed Live Imaging and Image Information Processing.


Use of the spinning disk confocal at the Harvard Medical School microscopy core.


Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy for Quantitative Imaging and Multi-Point Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy.


On-site manipulation of protein activities: Understanding intricate cell signaling pathways.

Application Note

A critical requirement in biopharmaceutical development is the integration and automation of process equipment and analytical instruments used in the laboratory. Bioprocess labs with multiple lab-scale bioreactors often execute cultivation experiments in parallel for research or process development purposes.

As part of a collaboration between Securecell (Zurich, SW) and Yokogawa Life Science (Tokyo, Japan), this application note demonstrates the effective use of the Lucullus® Process Information Management System (Lucullus®) to assist in the control of three Advanced Control Bioreactor Systems (BR1000) to study glucose utilization of CHO cells for optimal monoclonal antibody productivity.


Comparison between CSU and conventional LSM in 4D movies.

Application Note
Application Note

To investigate interactive dynamics of the intracellular structures and organelles in the stomatal movement through live imaging technique, a CSU system was used to capture 3-dimensional images (XYZN) and time-laps images (XYT) of guard cells.

Application Note

The CV8000 nuclear translocation analysis software enables the analysis of changes in the localization of signal molecules that transfer between cytoplasm and nuclei, such as proteins. The following is an example of the translocation analysis of NFκB, a transcription factor.

Application Note

Cell stage categorized using FucciTime lapse imaging of Fucci-added Hela cells was conducted over 48 hrs at 1 hr intervals. Gating was performed based on the mean intensities of 488 nm and 561 nm for each cell. They were categorized into four stages, and the cell count for each was calculated.

Application Note

The CQ1 confocal image acquisition mechanism with the distinctive CSU® unit has a function to sequentially acquire fine cell images along the Z-axis and capture information from the entire thickness of
cells which include heterogenic populations of various cell cycle stages. In addition, saved digital images can be useful for precise observation and analysis of spatial distribution of intracellular molecules.
The CQ1 capability to seamlessly analyze images and obtain data for things such as cell population statistics to individual cell morphology will provide benefits for both basic research and drug discovery
targetingM-cell cycle phase.


Caustic soda is an important basic material in the chemical industry and is mainly produced by the electrolysis of soda. In the electrolysis process to make concentrated caustic soda, the DM8 Liquid Density Meter ensures high product quality through accurate measurement of liquid density.

Application Note

List of Selected Publications : CSU-W1


List of Selected Publications : CQ1


Fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) is a set of fluorescent probes which enables the visualization of cell cycle progression in living cells.


List of Selected Publications : CSU-X1


List of Selected Publications : CV8000, CV7000, CV6000


Applications: Colony Formation, Scratch Wound, Cytotoxicity, Neurite Outgrowth, Co-culture Analysis, Cell Tracking


Faster, Brighter, and More Versatile Confocal Scanner Unit

Application Note

Welcome to The New World of High Content Analysis
High-throughput Cytological Discovery System

Yokogawa Technical Report
2.2 MB

This "Tutorial" provides overview of this software, from installation through data analysis.


In this tutorial, a method for analyzing ramified structure, using CellPathfinder, for the analysis of the vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis function will be explained.


In this tutorial, a method for analyzing ramified structure, using CellPathfinder, for the analysis of the vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis function will be explained.


In this tutorial, spheroid diameter and cell (nuclei) count within the spheroid will be analyzed.


In this tutorial, we will learn how to perform time-lapse analysis of objects with little movement using CellPathfinder, through calcium imaging of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes.


In this tutorial, we will identify the cell cycles G1-phase, G2/M-phase, etc. using the intranuclear DNA content.


In this tutorial, image analysis of collapsing stress fibers will be performed, and concentration-dependence curves will be drawn for quantitative evaluation.


In this tutorial, we will observe the change in number and length of neurites due to nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation in PC12 cells.


In this tutorial, intranuclear and intracytoplasmic NFκB will be measured and their ratios calculated, and a dose-response curve will be created.


In this tutorial, we will learn how to perform cell tracking with CellPathfinder through the analysis of test images.


In this tutorial, using images of zebrafish whose blood vessels are labeled with EGFP, tiling of the images and recognition of blood vessels within an arbitrary region will be explained.

The CSU-X1’s dichroic mirror measures at 13mm × 15mm × 0.5mm -0.20/-.020mm, t 0.500+/-0.02mm. Click here to view additional information on the CSU-X1 Confocal Scanner Unit. ...
The CSU-W1’s selectable pinhole size is shown as a measurement of diameter. You can learn more about the CSU-W1 Uniformizer by visiting here. ...
You can find the Yokogawa Life Science technical brochure in our online Library by clicking here. To view additional resources, click here. ...
Diagrams of the CSU-W1 Uniformizer and the CSU-X1 Confocal Scanner Unit can be found on page 14 of the General Specifications Guide. To view them, click here.
The CSU-X1’s maximum acquisition speed is 2000 fps. Learn more by clicking here.
The CQ1 has a top opening for robotic integration and is remote control mode-compatible with many robotic arms and grippers. To learn more, click here. ...
To download CellPathfinder, click here.
The CQ1 has a remote operation mode that allows third-party robotic scheduling software to open and load plates and run protocols for measurement and analysis. To learn more, click here. ...
The additional computer workstation that comes with the CQ1 enables simultaneous acquisition and analysis of data. To learn more, click here.   ...
For neurite growth, consider using either the 20x or 40x objective lens for maximum lateral resolution. To learn more, click here. ...
The CSU-W1 can be upgraded with a CSU-W1 SoRa, allowing you to switch between regular confocal observation and super-resolution observation. To learn more about the CSU-W1 SoRa click here . ...
You can request a CQ1 hardware or software manual by emailing Yokogawa Life Science at
The utility box is an accessory unit that provides power and lasers to the CQ1. To learn more, click here.
The numerical apertures of the CV8000 objectives are 2X 0.08NA 4X 0.16NA 10X 0.40NA 10X PH 0.30NA 20X 0.75NA 20X LWD 0.45NA 20X PH 0.45NA 20XWI 1.0NA 40X 0.95NA 40X WI 1.0NA 60X WI 1.2NA To learn more, click here. ...
The wavelengths for the emission filters that come with the CV8000 are listed below. Additionally, you may custom order additional emission filters for specific needs. To learn more, click here. 445/45 525/50 600/37 676/29 488/568 (Dual Band F...
Each CSU-W1 Confocal Scanner Unit is outfitted with the 25 µm and 50 µm pinhole options to allow for higher confocality as needed. To learn more, click here. ...




Fast, gentle, and clear - live-cell imaging. Yokogawa's unique scanning method minimizes damage to living cells and organisms and even can capture faint/fast life phenomena. 

More than 2,500+ units scanning units sold worldwide. This fast, reliable, and accurate technology has been leading cutting-edge research and supporting researchers around the world for more than two decades.

More information:

#confocal #microlens #microscope #CSU #Yokogawa #livecell


Yokogawa's CQ1 open platform integrates seamlessly with Advanced Solutions BioAssemblyBot® 400. With laboratory automation becoming a standard in research, Yokogawa's high content confocal system's ability to work with robots like Advanced Solutions' BioAssemblyBot® 400 is essential to advancing laboratory automation.


In this webinar, Professor Jonny Sexton discusses a pipeline, developed in the Sexton lab, for the quantitative high-throughput image-based screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify potential antiviral mechanisms and allow selection of appropriate drug combinations to treat COVID-19. This webinar presents evidence that morphological profiling can robustly identify new potential therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as drugs that potentially worsen COVID-19 outcomes.


Physiologically relevant 3D cell models are being adopted for disease modeling, drug discovery and preclinical research due to their functional and architectural similarity to their tissue/sample of origin, especially for oncology research. Multifunctional profiling and assays using 3D cell models such as tumoroids tend to be manual and tedious. Further, high-content imaging of biomarkers in 3D cell models can be difficult.
In this two-part webinar present to you streamlined technologies which can bring consistent timesaving, ease-of-use, and high-quality data to your 3D cell-based workflows:

(A)  The Pu·MA System is a microfluidics-based benchtop automated device for performing “hands-off” 3D cell-based assays. In this webinar, application scientist Dr. Katya Nikolov will present data from optimized assays using tumoroids followed by Yokogawa’s high-content imaging systems for biomarker detection.

(B) Yokogawa’s high-content imaging systems such as CellVoyager CQ1 provide superior confocal imaging using the Nipkow Spinning Disk Confocal Technology. Here, application scientist, Dan Collins will present details of the high-content imaging capabilities, easy to use and intuitive image acquisition software, especially for increasing productivity and a streamlined workflow.

Learn How:

  • The open platform, Pu·MA System can be used to automate your 3D cell-based assays
  • To perform automated IF staining for biomarkers using tumoroid models without perturbing your precious samples
  • Image acquisition from 3D cell models using Yokogawa’s high-content imaging platforms
  • Image analysis from cells, complex spheroids, colonies, or tissues using the CellPathfinder high content analysis software

Physiologically relevant 3D cell models are essential for drug discovery and preclinical research due to their functional and architectural similarity to solid tumors. One of the challenges faced by researchers is that many of the assays using these precious samples tend to be manual and tedious.

Using proprietary microfluidics technology, Protein Fluidics has created the Pu·MA System for automated complex 3D cell-based assays. In this webinar, application scientist Dr. Katya Nikolov will present her work on combining this novel automation technology with Yokogawa’s high-content imaging systems for biomarker detection in 3D cell models. Nikolov will demonstrate the utility of an automated immunofluorescence staining workflow followed by confocal imaging within the Pu·MA System flowchips. This automated workflow enables quantitative assessment of biomarkers which provides valuable data for further understanding disease mechanisms, preclinical drug efficacy studies, and in personalized medicine.

This webinar will explore:

  • The Pu·MA System and novel technology for automated 3D cell-based assays
  • How to perform automated immunofluorescence staining for biomarkers with a “hands-off” assay workflow
  • How to visualize biomarkers after the assay with high-content imaging within the flowchip

3D imaging experts from Yokogawa and Insphero have come together to provide helpful tips and tricks on acquiring the best 3D spheroid and organoid imaging. This webinar focuses on sample preparation, imaging, and analysis for both fixed and live cells in High Content Screening assays. The experts also discuss automated tools that can help researchers understand the large volume of data in these High Content Imaging Analysis Systems.


Visualizing the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of human stem cells as they proliferate and make cell fate decisions is key to improving our understanding of how to robustly engineer differentiated tissues for therapeutic applications.

In this webinar, Dr. Rafael Carazo Salas will describe multicolor, multiday high-content microscopy pipelines that his group has recently developed to visualize the dynamical cell fate changes of human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs).

Key Topics:

  • Visualizing how human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs) proliferate and undergo early differentiation in vitro, by high content microscopy
  • Learning about experimental and computational pipelines that enable monitoring single-cell fate dynamics
  • Learning about novel “live” reporters of hPSC cell fate

Rafael Carazo Salas, PhD
Professor, School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
University of Bristol


Dr. Sexton discusses high content screening for phenotypic-based drug discovery and development using Yokogawa technologies. This webinar presents the methodology behind acquiring good images that are able to leverage the three-dimensionality of different cell systems. His assays include 3D models such as organoids and spheroids.

In this webinar, you will discover:

  • How to identify when 2D or 3D methods are required to achieve desired results.
  • How to leverage your High Content Imaging Systems to get optimal signals and backgrounds.
  • Techniques that are used to improve cell observation yield and statistical distributions of morphological features.


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