The onshore upstream industry faces ever higher demands and greater challenges with increasingly difficult and hostile environments in which it must operate.
As the unconventional natural gas resources opportunities, particularly shale gas, are growing in North America, Yokogawa's total solution plays an important role helping customers meet the challenges of reducing both CAPEX and OPEX, while enhanced built-in technologies increase production. Our global as well as local experience provides the basis of our unique total solutions to meet the needs of this industry. With experienced upstream experts located in offices around the world, we provide quick and extensive support to meet the demands of our customers.
Onshore unconventional drilling is commonly used in the extraction of oil and natural gas today. There are an increasing number of multi-well pad type drilling programs in most of the active plays. Different drilling technics are used to decrease drilling time, lower environmental impact and to improve initial and estimated ultimate recovery.
The wellhead provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. The surface pressure control is provided by a christmas tree, which is installed on top of the wellhead. Isolation valves and choke equipment physically control the flow of well fluids when the well goes into production. Various automation packages are added to locally or remotely monitor, control and optimize production from each well or multi-well pad. Oilfield separators employ a pressure vessel to separate well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components which are then transferred to pipelines or localized storage depending on the areas infrastructure.
Natural-gas processing is designed to control the dew point of the natural gas stream and to separate the natural gas liquids for sale and distribution. Oil and condensate removal, water removal, separation of natural gas liquids and sulfur & carbon dioxide removal are processes used to separate impurities in the feed coming from upstream reservoirs. The fractionation process takes the liquid streams from the gas processing plant, which may consist of methane, propane, butane and pentane and treats them in separate fractionation columns which may then go to an impurity treatment plant before being sold as separate components.
Yokogawa total solutions include not only the well site, but also the injection, pipeline, compressor station, and the process plant facility. Our experience for these applications can be integrated to optimize the overall operation capability and maintainability.
Yokogawa is being selected by the major energy companies as its automation partner because Yokogawa focuses on delivering highly reliable solutions – from instrumentation to RTU's, SCADA, DCS, Safety Systems and integrated digital oil and gas field applications. Yokogawa offers a wide variety of sensors and controllers that are used to monitor and operate the digital oil & gas field, as well as engineering and configuration services and support, providing a turnkey automation solution. Explore Yokogawa's products to increase the efficiency and environmental performance of your wells, and ensure their safe and stable operation.
Many midstream executives today recognize that a source of great competitive advantage is the know-how their people possess. The ability to leverage a company's knowledge across its current and future employee base is often the difference between a successful company and a mediocre one.
Gas processing companies operate facilities that can benefit from advanced technologies developed for the refining, chemical, and petrochemical industries.
Williams Midstream is one of the largest gatherers and natural gas processors in the San Juan Basin of Colorado and New Mexico. Williams Midstream operate s 5 gas plants in the region with the combined capacity to process approximately 750 million cubic feet per day and treat an additional 760 million cubic feet per day.
DEFS was asked to consider applying a web-based optimization service to the Three Rivers gas plant. The Three Rivers plant is a single train cryogenic gas plant with a throughput of 80 mmscfd through the one processing train in operation during the operations timeframe.
Mid-stream assets are currently managed from a commercial perspective using traditional spreadsheet tools. These tools are used to analyze gathering and processing options based on current index prices and to evaluate the margins generated by new well connects. Spreadsheets are effective.
The gas processing industry has been active in Oklahoma since the early 1930's. The majority of gas processing plants currently in operation were installed in the late 1970's and early 1980's to take advantage of advances in turboexpander technology. Many of these plants have not been upgraded since their installation with regards to process technology or their plant control systems.
Enogex was the first company to deploy eSimulation's web-based optimization system (eSimOptimizerSM). The results of their first application, applied to the Custer plant, were presented at previous GPA meetings in 2001 and 2002. Enogex followed this success with additional web-based optimization applications at their other gas processing facilities.
In early 2008, Southern Union Gas Services (SUGS) commissioned eSimulation to build a predictive business model to help SUGS accurately manage and forecast plant gross margins. The business model encompasses SUGS's fully integrated gathering and processing assets located in the Permian Basin region of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (5 plant gathering and processing /treating supersystem).
Western Gas Resources, Inc. (WGR) has embarked on a business improvement initiative at the Granger, WY processing asset. The initiative includes on-line model-based process optimization provided by eSimulation Inc. The Granger plant was chosen for optimization because of its size and complexity.
BP America Production Company (BP) commissioned eSimulationSM's eSimOptimizerSM web-based process optimization system on the Crane Gathering and Processing System in Upton and Midland Counties, TX, in February 2005. This technology has been applied previously by eSimulation to several gas processing facilities.
With the current growth of the midstream industry, gas processing companies are increasingly focused on acquiring, expanding, and constructing new gas processing facilities. This diverts the attention of process engineers and operations management towards working on facilities design and commissioning.
Repeater is installed on high place between control room and monitor position. The extend cable is used for antenna of Gateway.
One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.
Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.
For shorter time horizon margin management, eSimulation provides the eSimOptimizerTM economic/process optimization solution to maximize gas plant profitability. eSimulation began operations in early 2000 by deploying the eSimOptimizer solution to manage key energy and process tradeoffs at the plant level. The platform has evolved to take advantage of new technologies, with a continued focus on integrating the technology into client business processes.
Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.
eSimEvaluator™ is a comprehensive, offline business management and optimization solution designed specifically for planning, forecasting, and business-wide optimization applications in the midstream industry. eSimEvaluator™ is unique in that it models both the economic and physical interactions inherent in midstream enterprises.
Yokogawa is one of a few companies worldwide that is able to successfully execute large SCADA host migration projects, i.e. data item counts in excess of 500,000 points. This advantage plus our robust technology coupled with the knowledge of previous Systems installed within various customers and our overall integration and knowledge of third party systems should give Yokogawa a clear technical advantage.
One of the challenges that upstream and midstream businesses face is aggregating volume and composition data from multiple sources to allow for measurement analyses from wellhead to sales points. Required measurement analyses include checking custody transfer volumes, tracking losses across the system, and running balances across all aspects of the business (property, field, gathering area, etc...).
There are numerous industrial applications where measurements and/or control of a specific chemical strength of the process is critical for optimizing the production of the end product. These specific concentrations are obtained by mixing a full strength solution with water to achieve the desired percent concentration.
Remote leak detection for pipe line was needed to meet new environmental statute. However cabling earthwork is strictly restricted to protect land environment.
Measuring energy consumption is an important factor in the quest to improve energy efficiency. Efficient and accurate metering is paramount to determining excess use, along with an accurate picture of where the steam is being used. The more accurate and reliable measurements that are made, the more informed decisions can be taken that affect costs and product quality. Traditionally the most common method of steam metering is the orifice plate and differential pressure transmitter technique. General areas of concern with this type of measurement are the orifice plate's susceptibility to wear introducing immediate inaccuracies, the relatively high permanent pressure losses introduced into the system by the orifice place and the small measuring range, typically 3:1.
Yokogawa's digitalYEWFLO Reduced Bore Type Vortex Flow meter features a cast stainless steel body and a concentric reducer and expander that enable stable flow rate measurements in low-flow conditions. This expands the range of measurements that can be performed, from the higher flow rates down to the lower end of the flow span, which is normally difficult for Vortex Flow meters, and ensures stable and accurate flow rate output.
Yokogawa first introduced its renowned SUPER CONTROL™ in industrial controllers over a decade ago. This is a fuzzy logic alogrithm that eliminates overshoot from the desired set point and mimics the control expertise of the most experienced operator.
Flow Measurement of diesel fuel is a relatively basic flow meter application. However, measuring net fuel consumption on a 2.2 megawatt diesel generator is uniquely complex. The diesel engine requires a supply fuel line (fuel from the tank to the engine) and a return fuel line (fuel from the engine back to the tank).
PID is an acronym for proportional band, integral and derivative. This control action allows a measurement (process variable) to be controlled at a desired set point by continuously adjusting a control output. These control parameters act on the error or deviation between set point and process variable.
It is estimated that almost two thirds of oil discovered in the United States lies unrecovered trapped in porous formations. There are approximately 500,000 abandoned wells containing such oil. Because of this fact oil companies are constantly pursuing methods for the recovery of this oil.
With the rapid pace of drilling for Oil & Gas in North America, more and more companies are choosing to automate their wells after drilling and completion. Implementations with quality, reliable and accurate electronic transmitters provide greater visibility of well activity during the lifecycle of each well. Well mounted transmitters provide local process readings as well as transmission of process data for monitoring and control.
Natural gas exploration and production of the rich shale formations in North America is a rapidly growing trend in the onshore Oil & Gas industry. With these ever expanding development activities come the need for improved monitoring technology allowing more efficient operations and to help companies ensure they are following the various environmental regulatory framework. Flow measurement technology has become an integral part of each major service provider's process allowing these companies to profitably keep up with the demanding pace of business today.
With ever increasing demands for information associated with reservoir management, major oil & gas companies are turning to fiber optic sensing technology for downhole temperature measurement. This relatively new technology can now be packaged for deployment into the harsh environments associated with oilfield production. The information captured by the DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensor) can be exported and analyzed in various ways to provide a better profile of the subsurface activities.
Both centrifigal and axial compressors cannot be allowed to operate below the surge limit of the operating conditions. The machinery may be exposed to excessive stress and vibration. If the discharge flow demand is less than the compressor surge limit, some of that flow must be vented or recycled to the inlet to stay above surge.
Due to current events of target virus attacks such as Stuxnet and Flame, the demand for cyber security has become high priority within Industrial Automation (IA). Since the beginning of IA, the global approach for security technologies has been reserved. There was a valid reason for the industry wide reticence, given that there were no direct vulnerabilities.
The world of process automation is governed by procedures. While we like to refer to the process industries as being largely "continuous", this could not be further from the truth. Process manufacturing is constantly in flux.
Tuning PID controllers can seem a mystery. Parameters that provide effective control over a process one day fail to do so the next. The stability and responsiveness of a process seem to be at complete odds with each other. And controller equations include subtle differences that can baffle even the most experienced practitioners.
Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.
Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.
Recently, there is an increasing demand for operation and monitoring of all the various controllers distributed in the field on the same screens to improve plant operation efficiency. The purpose of the Unified Gateway Station (UGS) is to connect external controllers, such as the STARDOM's FCN/FCJ autonomous controllers and other vendors' controllers, to the CENTUM VP integrated production control system and to operate and monitor those external controllers on the Human Interface Station (HIS) screens, the operation and monitoring screens for the CENTUM VP.
One solution packaged for production control systems today is a system comprising a PLC and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software that runs on a PC. An advantage of these systems is that they can be configured at considerably lower cost than systems that use dedicated devices as they use commercially available PCs.
As international price competition becomes increasingly fierce, high value-added, high-efficiency production is essential for the survival of production plants in the oil refining, chemical and other industries. On the other hand, if plant equipment, which is the foundation of these production industries fails, business opportunities will be lost due to loss of yield, environmental destruction, and weakened financial strength due to social compensation.
Wireless technology has a long history, and it began around the time that James C. Maxwell theoretically predicted and then proved the existence of electromagnetic waves in the 1860s, and when Heinrich R. Hertz experimentally confirmed the actual existence of the electromagnetic wave in 1888.
When a project is executed following the main automation contractor (MAC) method, front-end engineering and design (FEED) is conducted before actual delivery phases such as design, implementation, inspection, and shipment, to identify risks in advance and mitigate risks in delivery phases through the standardization of the basic functions and components.
Field instruments are expected to be equipped with diagnostic functions to predict abnormal process conditions, and are also expected to expand these functions. The ability to extract diagnostic information for prediction and prevention from various physical process quantities measured by devices and make it available allows the user to reduce non-essential and non-urgent maintenance and thus cut maintenance costs.
Yokogawa Electric Corporation promotes the standardization of FOUNDATION™ fieldbus as the communication foundation supporting Asset Excellence for VigilantPlant, which is an approach aimed at the advancement of plant instruments and equipment. With the recent dramatic advancement of fieldbus technologies, information processing technologies, and network speed, it has become possible to process various kinds of information inside the field sensors and transmit the results to the distributed control system (DCS) and host computer.
Large process industry companies have recently started building plants with world-class safety and profitability to reinforce their competitive edge in the global market. As for plant operations, support functions for improving operators' plant operation skills and for extending operators' maximum capability are required to the DCS so that an operator can expand the area of plant monitoring or operate a plant with higher cost- consciousness.
In 2000, we formed a technical tie-up with Shell Global Solutions (SGSI) to enter the advanced process control and optimization solution business. At the same time, we started marketing a solution based package comprising an Exasmoc multi-variable model-based predictive control function, an Exarqe property estimation function, an Exaspot online real-time optimizer and an MD control monitor & diagnosis function by taking full advantage of the SGSI advanced control and optimization technology (APC&O).
Yokogawa has formed an alliance with Shell Global Solutions International B.V. (SGSI) for advanced process control and has been jointly developing related products since then. As part of this collaborative work, we commercialized the Exasmoc multivariable model predictive control package and the Exarqe robust quality estimator package in 2000, which are used to control DCS and PLC systems based on SGSI's multivariable predictive control and quality estimation algorithms—namely, SMOC (Shell Multivariable Optimizing Controller) and RQE (Robust Quality Estimator).
There is growing recognition of the importance of preventing serious accidents in the process control field in view of the potential scale of impact on society. The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 international standards call for the reduction of risk using safety instrumented systems (SIS) as well as the configuration of multiple protective layers in a process control system in order to prevent major accidents.
As plant operation becomes more intelligent and complex, the alarm system for safe and stable operation is becoming increasingly important. An alarm warns operators of an abnormal situation in a process and urges them to respond to it.
In plant sites, there are various places such as those affording an unobstructed view like tank yards, and others surrounded by metal pipes and equipment obstructing the view (hereafter referred to "pipe jungles"), often seen in oil refinery and chemical on-site plants. The frequency band of radio waves used for field wireless communication is 2.4 GHz, which has high straightness and its ability to go around things can hardly be expected.
The changes in social environment, such as globalization of enterprise activities, depletion of natural resources, and eco-oriented movement will affect the structure of mass production. Control systems must be prepared with flexibility and scalability in both size and function to adjust to the changes.
The engineering phase holds the largest ratios in control system configuration in terms of both time and money, so improving engineering efficiency is one of the biggest issues when it comes to system integration. In the STARDOM, Application Portfolios (APPF) are devised to dramatically slash engineering costs and increase software reliability.
In 2005, Yokogawa announced "VigilantPlant" as a concept to ward the realization of a type of plant operation that is considered ideal by our customers.
As the world's societies become more connected, market competition is becoming more ruthless and transactions are performed at ever increasing speeds. Deregulation has ignited global competition throughout the world. The proliferation of Information and Internet technologies have accelerated the growth of global competition, with life cycles for high tech products having lives measured in "dog years" (in each normal year they advance seven years).
When considering improving the efficiency of plant operation, major focus is put on process units, control systems and production or operation management. However, it is also important to prepare a comfortable and safe environment for operators, who are trying to operate the plant more efficiently every day using control systems.
As a founding member of the Fieldbus Foundation and one of the companies on the board, Yokogawa Electric Corporation has contributed to the development of fieldbus specifications from the outset. Yokogawa Electric has lead the foundation by proposing the technical base for interoperability among other things.
The manufacturing industry has grown based on solid production technologies for creating quality products. However, the economic environment is changing dramatically, forcing manufacturing firms to face tough global competition; firms must ship the right products at the right time as the market requests.
The development of difficult to recover unconventional energy resources, is progressing. Figure 1 shows an example of how unconventional heavy oil is extracted from tar sand by reducing its viscosity with steam. To ensure efficient mining, changes in the underground temperature distribution will need to be monitored.
Safe plant operation has long been pursued in all industries. Specifically, in the process automation industry which involves many hazardous elements, safety measures including explosion-protected systems have been adopted based on numerous tragic experiences.
When evaluating mass flow rates using a primary device such as an orifice or nozzle in a differential pressure flow meter in order to make fluid density compensations, the upstream pressure (static pressure) and fluid temperature are measured in addition to the output of a regular differential pressure transmitter.
Improved plant operation efficiency and reduced maintenance costs based on appropriate predictive maintenance are the common objectives that need to be achieved in every manufacturing domain. Exaquantum is positioned above the Process Control System (PCS) layer and gathers and stores huge volumes of process and laboratory data over long terms.
For large scale geographically dispersed projects, there may be a hierarchy of individual Process Automation systems, which in turn are each responsible for a specific region, and are managed by a higher level system. Engineering of systems on this scale is a huge challenge, because each individual system has its own database and its own configuration.
Intelligent field instruments and process analyzers accumulate diverse field information including process values and diagnostic results. This data needs to be sent to upper systems such as distributed control systems (DCS) via digital communications such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus and analyzer buses, or hybrid communications such as HART and Brain, and visualized to enable the customer to utilize them for plant operations and maintenance.
We have developed the FCN (field control node) and FCJ (field control junction) autonomous controllers as the core of STARDOM, a solution that actualizes a network-based control system (NCS) Yokogawa proposes for increased production efficiency.
Due to the rising energy demand in emerging countries in recent years, the amount of oil and gas production has been increasing, thus investment in the development of new oil and gas fields and replacement of old facilities has been booming.
As for a controller used in a distributed control system (DCS) shown in Figure 1, covering as many applications as possible with a single controller will bring cost reduction effects such as easy engineering and a small controller installation area. Therefore, the controller is required to process large amounts of data more quickly.
The specifications of the ISA100.11a wireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard. The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.
There are already safety systems on the market that have achieved safety integrity level SIL3 of the functional safety standard, IEC61508. However, most of them have achieved SIL3 by conversion of modules into dual-redundant or triplex form.
The recent variety of industrial and railway accidents happening right before our very eyes make us painfully aware that "safety" must be put first and foremost. "Safety first" is a concept accepted by everyone and there is no room for disagreement. However, the author feels that, in some cases, the concrete objectives of "safety first" are not actually clear, and the grasp of the hazards is insufficient.
In recent years, safety and profitability have become ever more important in the process industry due to fierce global competition. Greater emphasis is being placed on highly efficient plant operation for reducing the increasing energy bill.
The business world surrounding the manufacturing industry is undergoing rapid and drastic changes. Achieving production activities that can respond swiftly to such environmental changes has become an urgent task.
As field instrumentation devices become increasingly digitized and computerized, interactive and remote access to a large quantity of field information becomes possible. This will increase the efficiency of plant equipment maintenance by reducing labor requirements in field patrol work for example.
In recent years it has become increasingly common for plants to be provided not only with the control layer of a production control system (DCS, etc.), but also with the protection layer of a safety instrumented system (SIS) to reduce the risk of industrial accidents. The safety instrumented system is indispensable for avoiding risks to a plant failure.
Instrumentation devices and equipment serve for plants as the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which are responsible for the five senses, and act as the central nervous system and brain do for human beings. The reliability and availability of such devices and equipment are the most important requirements of customers.
Vortex flow meters have been appreciated by users as volume flow meters, which can, in principle, be applied to any flow measurement of liquid, gas, or steam. Volume flow measurement is enough for substances with small variations in density such as liquid.
In 1988, Yokogawa launched the ADMAG series of magnetic flow meters with increased resistance to fluid noise and zero stability, employing dual frequency excitation which was developed based on its long-cultivated technology for flow measurement. Since then, the ADMAG family has augmented its application range with such models as explosion-proof and integral types, and a capacitance type.
Since the release of the DPharp EJ series in 1991 and the DPharp EJA series in 1994, nearly 1.2 million of these transmitters have been operating all over the world. Recently, we have also developed the EJX series of even more compact, lightweight and advanced transmitters with multi- sensing capabilities built using silicon resonant sensor technology.
The introduction of wireless technologies into plants is anticipated as one of the measures for implementing field digital solutions not only to reduce cable wiring costs but also to improve plant wide safety/stable operations, operating efficiency, and so on.
Yokogawa proposed the VigilantPlant concept as an ideal plant that achieves fully optimized operation where all the necessary information is given to all the operators involved in the plant operation. In VigilantPlant, operators are able to quickly respond to changes in the external environment while the production activities run without any interruption.
Recently, standardization of procedural automation of manual operations has been promoted mainly by the International Society of Automation (ISA), and the functional requirements necessary for automation are being studied by the ISA106 committee in the US.
Upgrading and renewal of plant facilities, including production control systems and safety instrumented systems, are essential for maintaining safe and efficient plant operation. Even though these activities are categorized as R&R, they require investment and customers are often required to evaluate the profitability for obtaining approval.
The introduction of wireless into industrial monitoring and control not only reduces wiring and maintenance costs but also expands its applications to include those which are impossible with wired systems, such as monitoring points which have to be given up due to the difficulty of the construction, and monitoring of points on rotating or frequently moved objects.
In recent years, more field wireless devices have been used in hazardous areas. Meanwhile, in plants that are usually recognized as hazardous areas, there are numerous metallic tanks and pipes that easily shield or reflect radio waves, as discussed later, thus resulting in a poor environment for wireless communication.
The Coriolis flow meter has many features such as direct measurement of mass flow and measurement of fluid density, which other flow meters do not support. Therefore, since being introduced for practical use in the late 1970s, its market has rapidly expanded in many industries such as oil, chemicals, and foods.
Environment and safety are major topics on a global scale in recent times. As symbolized by the effectuation of the Kyoto Protocol, an interest in preserving the environment is growing worldwide, and there is also a tendency to criticize more severely, occurrences of industrial accidents that are accompanied by environmental contamination or which may cause damage, etc., to residents in the surrounding areas.
Conventional safety instrumented system (SIS) is typically installed separated from a distributed control system (DCS) to eliminate interference from the DCS and assure safety. However, users increasingly wish to integrate SIS with DCS while maintaining the safety of safety controllers.
To improve the efficiency of operations, production control systems are working together more closely with information systems. As a result, security measures have become indispensable for production control systems though they have not been emphasized to date. Because many production control systems are used for critical infrastructure, some malware tries to attack them.
In recent years, expectations for control systems using wireless communications have been increasing in the process control market. This is because these systems do not require power and communication wiring for field instruments, enabling reduced initial and maintenance costs, and easy installation.
To date, Yokogawa has focused on DCS (Distributed Control System) which control the entire power generation plant, including boilers, in the electric power industry. In contrast, turbomachinery control has been handled by turbine manufacturers, but as the electric power market has been active internationally, especially in China and India, in recent years, Yokogawa has been developing turbomachinery control systems to to further develop the electric power industry.
ROTAMASS is the integral and remote type Coriolis Mass Flow Meter. Both types have highly refined digital signal processing electronics, so that accurate and stable mass flow measurement is achieved.
It is the most technologically advanced mass flow meter yet. By combining the superior design of the application specific flow sensor and transmitters with the Total Insight philosophy and functionality, the flexibility of the ROTAMASS to adapt to changing requirements guarantees performance throughout the lifecycle of the process measurement.
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