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Wellhead & Separation

The wellhead provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. The surface pressure control is provided by a christmas tree, which is installed on top of the wellhead. Isolation valves and choke equipment physically control the flow of well fluids when the well goes into production. Various automation packages are added to locally or remotely monitor, control and optimize production from each well or multi-well pad. Oilfield separators employ a pressure vessel to separate well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components which are then transferred to pipelines or localized storage depending on the areas infrastructure.

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  • STARDOM and FAST/TOOLS integrated SCADA solution for Indian Oil Corporation's multiproduct oil pipeline.
  • STARDOM facilitates the total visualization of data needed for safe and reliable pipeline operations.
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ISA100 wireless pressure transmitters

Application Note
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One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.

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Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.

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  • Compressor start and stop
    The inlet valve and blow-off valve are controlled efficiently.
  • During steady-state operation
    The inlet valve is controlled to regulate the blow-off flow rate of the compressed air. (Flow control)
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  • Effeciently controls the inlet valve and blow-off valve when the compressor starts and stops.
  • During steady operation, controls the inlet valve so that the amount of discharged compressed air becomes constant (flow control)
  • Surging: Load decreases, the amount of discharge flow and pressure drop, and a limit is exceeded, possibly destroying the compressor.
Application Note
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Level transmitter configuration can be very time consuming. DPharp transmitters with advanced software functionality eliminate this time consuming task. With maintenance shops getting smaller, finding equipment that allows us to do more with less becomes a priority.

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Yokogawa provides controller embedded flow calculation library based on AGA (American Gas Association) reports.

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STARDOM field control node (FCN) autonomous controllers allow both Modbus master and slave functions to run simultaneously.

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The major methods of improved oil recovery are water flooding and steam injection. "These technologies make a tremendous contribution to recovering additional oil from old wells as well as improve primary recovery of operating oil fields."

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Gas flow data calculated by an RTU can be sent back to a transmitter using the two-way communications capability of FOUNDATION fieldbus.

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ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters.

Application Note
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Yokogawa is one of a few companies worldwide that is able to successfully execute large SCADA host migration projects, i.e. data item counts in excess of 500,000 points. This advantage plus our robust technology coupled with the knowledge of previous Systems installed within various customers and our overall integration and knowledge of third party systems should give Yokogawa a clear technical advantage.

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To make the most of the advantages of GPRS, Yokogawa's STARDOM FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs and FAST/TOOLS SCADA package have several functions that reduce the number of packets that must be sent. This dramatically lowers communication fees.

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Yokogawa first introduced its renowned SUPER CONTROL™ in industrial controllers over a decade ago. This is a fuzzy logic alogrithm that eliminates overshoot from the desired set point and mimics the control expertise of the most experienced operator.

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Measuring energy consumption is an important factor in the quest to improve energy efficiency. Efficient and accurate metering is paramount to determining excess use, along with an accurate picture of where the steam is being used. The more accurate and reliable measurements that are made, the more informed decisions can be taken that affect costs and product quality. Traditionally the most common method of steam metering is the orifice plate and differential pressure transmitter technique. General areas of concern with this type of measurement are the orifice plate's susceptibility to wear introducing immediate inaccuracies, the relatively high permanent pressure losses introduced into the system by the orifice place and the small measuring range, typically 3:1.

Yokogawa's digitalYEWFLO Reduced Bore Type Vortex Flow meter features a cast stainless steel body and a concentric reducer and expander that enable stable flow rate measurements in low-flow conditions. This expands the range of measurements that can be performed, from the higher flow rates down to the lower end of the flow span, which is normally difficult for Vortex Flow meters, and ensures stable and accurate flow rate output.

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There are numerous industrial applications where measurements and/or control of a specific chemical strength of the process is critical for optimizing the production of the end product. These specific concentrations are obtained by mixing a full strength solution with water to achieve the desired percent concentration.

Application Note
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PID is an acronym for proportional band, integral and derivative. This control action allows a measurement (process variable) to be controlled at a desired set point by continuously adjusting a control output. These control parameters act on the error or deviation between set point and process variable.

Application Note
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Virtualization and Cloud Computing are becoming common terms. Global leaders in Information Technology (IT) advertise with their new solutions of Virtualization and Cloud Computing.

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Both centrifigal and axial compressors cannot be allowed to operate below the surge limit of the operating conditions. The machinery may be exposed to excessive stress and vibration. If the discharge flow demand is less than the compressor surge limit, some of that flow must be vented or recycled to the inlet to stay above surge.

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It is estimated that almost two thirds of oil discovered in the United States lies unrecovered trapped in porous formations. There are approximately 500,000 abandoned wells containing such oil. Because of this fact oil companies are constantly pursuing methods for the recovery of this oil.

Application Note
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Virtualization and Cloud Computing are becoming common terms. Global leaders in Information Technology (IT) advertise with their new solutions of Virtualization and Cloud Computing.

Application Note
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Due to current events of target virus attacks such as Stuxnet and Flame, the demand for cyber security has become high priority within Industrial Automation (IA). Since the beginning of IA, the global approach for security technologies has been reserved. There was a valid reason for the industry wide reticence, given that there were no direct vulnerabilities.

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Recently, several ARC Advisory Group analysts and management team members had a chance to sit down with the new Yokogawa President and COO, Mr. Takashi Nishijima, and several other top Yokogawa executives to discuss the company's burgeoning presence in the worldwide upstream and midstream oil & gas industry.

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Vortex flow meters utilize a fluid phenomenon in which frequencies of Karman vortex streets released from a shedder bar inserted in a flow are proportional to flow velocities.

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One solution packaged for production control systems today is a system comprising a PLC and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software that runs on a PC. An advantage of these systems is that they can be configured at considerably lower cost than systems that use dedicated devices as they use commercially available PCs.

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Wireless technology has a long history, and it began around the time that James C. Maxwell theoretically predicted and then proved the existence of electromagnetic waves in the 1860s, and when Heinrich R. Hertz experimentally confirmed the actual existence of the electromagnetic wave in 1888.

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Field instruments are expected to be equipped with diagnostic functions to predict abnormal process conditions, and are also expected to expand these functions. The ability to extract diagnostic information for prediction and prevention from various physical process quantities measured by devices and make it available allows the user to reduce non-essential and non-urgent maintenance and thus cut maintenance costs.

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In plant sites, there are various places such as those affording an unobstructed view like tank yards, and others surrounded by metal pipes and equipment obstructing the view (hereafter referred to "pipe jungles"), often seen in oil refinery and chemical on-site plants. The frequency band of radio waves used for field wireless communication is 2.4 GHz, which has high straightness and its ability to go around things can hardly be expected.

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The changes in social environment, such as globalization of enterprise activities, depletion of natural resources, and eco-oriented movement will affect the structure of mass production. Control systems must be prepared with flexibility and scalability in both size and function to adjust to the changes.

Yokogawa Technical Report
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The engineering phase holds the largest ratios in control system configuration in terms of both time and money, so improving engineering efficiency is one of the biggest issues when it comes to system integration. In the STARDOM, Application Portfolios (APPF) are devised to dramatically slash engineering costs and increase software reliability.

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As the world's societies become more connected, market competition is becoming more ruthless and transactions are performed at ever increasing speeds. Deregulation has ignited global competition throughout the world. The proliferation of Information and Internet technologies have accelerated the growth of global competition, with life cycles for high tech products having lives measured in "dog years" (in each normal year they advance seven years).

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The development of difficult to recover unconventional energy resources, is progressing. Figure 1 shows an example of how unconventional heavy oil is extracted from tar sand by reducing its viscosity with steam. To ensure efficient mining, changes in the underground temperature distribution will need to be monitored.

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Differential pressure transmitters, which serve as the core of field instrumentation, are widely used to measure the flow rate, pressure and density of liquids, gases and steam, as well as the level of liquid in a tank.

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Safe plant operation has long been pursued in all industries. Specifically, in the process automation industry which involves many hazardous elements, safety measures including explosion-protected systems have been adopted based on numerous tragic experiences.

Yokogawa Technical Report
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When evaluating mass flow rates using a primary device such as an orifice or nozzle in a differential pressure flow meter in order to make fluid density compensations, the upstream pressure (static pressure) and fluid temperature are measured in addition to the output of a regular differential pressure transmitter.

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For large scale geographically dispersed projects, there may be a hierarchy of individual Process Automation systems, which in turn are each responsible for a specific region, and are managed by a higher level system. Engineering of systems on this scale is a huge challenge, because each individual system has its own database and its own configuration.

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Intelligent field instruments and process analyzers accumulate diverse field information including process values and diagnostic results. This data needs to be sent to upper systems such as distributed control systems (DCS) via digital communications such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus and analyzer buses, or hybrid communications such as HART and Brain, and visualized to enable the customer to utilize them for plant operations and maintenance.

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We have developed the FCN (field control node) and FCJ (field control junction) autonomous controllers as the core of STARDOM, a solution that actualizes a network-based control system (NCS) Yokogawa proposes for increased production efficiency.

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Due to the rising energy demand in emerging countries in recent years, the amount of oil and gas production has been increasing, thus investment in the development of new oil and gas fields and replacement of old facilities has been booming.

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Many field devices are now being connected to process control systems through fieldbus communication. These field devices have intelligence, and so many settings and adjustments can be made through fieldbus communication.

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More than ten years have passed since the first digitized field devices were introduced. These support either a hybrid communication protocol such as HART or a full digital communication protocol such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus.

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The specifications of the ISA100.11a wireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard. The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.

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Instrumentation devices and equipment serve for plants as the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which are responsible for the five senses, and act as the central nervous system and brain do for human beings. The reliability and availability of such devices and equipment are the most important requirements of customers.

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Vortex flow meters have been appreciated by users as volume flow meters, which can, in principle, be applied to any flow measurement of liquid, gas, or steam. Volume flow measurement is enough for substances with small variations in density such as liquid. 

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In 1988, Yokogawa launched the ADMAG series of magnetic flow meters with increased resistance to fluid noise and zero stability, employing dual frequency excitation which was developed based on its long-cultivated technology for flow measurement. Since then, the ADMAG family has augmented its application range with such models as explosion-proof and integral types, and a capacitance type.

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Since the release of the DPharp EJ series in 1991 and the DPharp EJA series in 1994, nearly 1.2 million of these transmitters have been operating all over the world. Recently, we have also developed the EJX series of even more compact, lightweight and advanced transmitters with multi- sensing capabilities built using silicon resonant sensor technology.

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In recent years, more field wireless devices have been used in hazardous areas. Meanwhile, in plants that are usually recognized as hazardous areas, there are numerous metallic tanks and pipes that easily shield or reflect radio waves, as discussed later, thus resulting in a poor environment for wireless communication.

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The Coriolis flow meter has many features such as direct measurement of mass flow and measurement of fluid density, which other flow meters do not support. Therefore, since being introduced for practical use in the late 1970s, its market has rapidly expanded in many industries such as oil, chemicals, and foods.

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Yokogawa has been leading the process automation industries as one of the pioneers in field digital technologies represented by the FOUNDATION fieldbus™ and Field Device Tool/Device Type Manager (FDT/DTM).

Product Overviews

    Overview:

    Well Producer will help the customer operate the wellsite without any complicated engineering effort.

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    Yokogawa presents a walk through of the Well Producer Well Pad Automation Solution for the upstream market. This video consists of a quick presentation covering the basic concept of Well Producer and follows up with a review of the built in customizable Web interface for configuring and reviewing the operational parameters of gas well pads - including plunger lift control and electronic gas metering. Well Producer can be customized to fit the specific needs of operators and is based on Yokogawa's flexible and robust Stardom RTU platform.

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