Al igual que su equivalente en tierra, el procesamiento y manejo en cubierta en las plataformas de producción preparan hidrocarburos extraídos para transportación. Yokogawa ofrece soluciones de control integrado y de monitoreo que maximizan la productividad y la disponibilidad de las operaciones en cubierta.
La perfecta integración entre el sistema en cubierta y el sistema de control maestro submarino (MCS) es llegar a ser una demanda común de los operadores de campo en altamar. A lo largo de varios proyectos, Yokogawa ha sido estandarizando las plantillas funcionales para ejecutar la funcionalidad total MCS en un sistema de control distribuido. Esta arquitectura avanzada y confiable añade un progreso rápido y la flexibilidad para su estrategia de automatización submarino.
Offshore projects can sometimes be financially unqualifiable unless innovative techniques are used to reduce CAPEX and OPEX costs.
One such method invovles the use of a High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) located on the seabed, which would allow de-rating of the flow lines. Traditionally, the flow lines are designed to withstand the maximum wellhead pressure, with HIPPS systems located topsides to protect the process. In this instance, it was realized that major capital savings could be made on the flow lines if the HIPPs could be relocated closer to the wellheads. The concept required technology which could combine the highest integrity with the highest reliability and availability.
Yokogawa has a great deal of experience in the supply of High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS) using the Magnetic Logic based ProSafe-SLS system, certified for applications up to SIL4.
Many topsides HIPPS systems have been delivered which provide the same SIL level and basic functionality but do not have the same constraints on power and weight.
Yokogawa also has rich project execution experience in:
- Separation control
- Injection control
- Utility control
- Ballast control
- Emergency shutdown (ESD)
- Fire and gas safety system
El Proyecto Mars B agregó la siguiente infraestructura totalmente nueva para aumentar la producción en el Mars Field y descubrimientos exploratorios cercanos: la plataforma Olympus Leg Tension (TLP), que tiene 24 ranuras y así una plataforma de perforación autónoma; el sistema submarino West Boreas / South Deimos; y un sistema de exportación de petróleo y gas, que incluye la plataforma en aguas poco profundas WD- 143C. La plataforma de tipo TLP de Olympus (TLP) comenzó a producir el 4 de febrero de 2014. El TLP es el segundo en el Mars Field y el sexto de su tipo para Shell en el Golfo de México.
Para aprovechar al máximo las ventajas del GPRS, las RTUs inteligentes STARDOM FCN/FCJ de Yokogawa y el paquete de FAST/TOOLS SCADA tienen varias funciones que reducen el número de paquetes que se deben enviar. Esto reduce dramáticamente los honorarios de la comunicación.
The paperless recorder DX series instruments allow you to determine temperature and humidity, and manage the results as manufacturing and quality data at a reasonable cost with a simple configuration.
- The distance is not so long, but there are many pipes and tanks ("Pipe Jungle") in the field.
- Had to avoid the obstacles and take care multi path condition.
Repeater is installed on high place between control room and monitor position. The extend cable is used for antenna of Gateway.
- Temperature Transmitter (YTA) x1, Pressure Transmitter (EJX) x2
ISA100 wireless pressure transmitters
ISA100 wireless temperature and pressure transmitters.
Los datos de flujo de gas calculados por una RTU pueden ser enviados a un transmisor utilizando la comunicación bidireccional del FOUNDATION fieldbus.
One of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters is flow measurement. DPharp differential pressure transmitters have some unique signal conditioning features to eliminate instability at low flow rates.
Operators must receive diagnostic information before a line block leads to a malfunction. Yokogawa provides predictive diagnostics based on trend analysis of the blocking factor, which improves maintenance efficiency and reduces maintenance costs.
Yokogawa es una de las pocas empresas en todo el mundo que es capaz de ejecutar con éxito grandes proyectos de migración de host SCADA, es decir, cuenta con artículos de datos de más de 500,000 puntos. Esta ventaja, además de nuestra resistente tecnología, junto con el conocimiento de Sistemas anteriores instalados en varios clientes y nuestra integración en general, además del conocimiento de sistemas de terceros debe dar a Yokogawa una clara ventaja técnica.
Los controladores autónomos de nodo de control de campo STARDOM (FCN) permiten que las funciones maestras y esclavas Modbus se ejecuten simultáneamente.
Yokogawa provides controller embedded flow calculation library based on AGA (American Gas Association) reports.
La configuración del transmisor de nivel puede tomar mucho tiempo. Los transmisores DPharp tiene la función de un software avanzado eliminando esta tarea que toma tiempo. Con talleres de mantenimiento cada vez más pequeños, la búsqueda de equipos que nos permiten hacer más con menos se convierte en una prioridad.
Medir el consumo de energía es un factor importante en la búsqueda de mejorar la eficiencia energética. La medición eficiente y precisa es fundamental para determinar el exceso de uso, junto con una imagen exacta en dónde se usa el vapor. Las mediciones más precisas y confiables que se realizan, las decisiones más informadas pueden ser tomadas afectando los costos y la calidad del producto. Tradicionalmente, el método más común de medición de vapor es la placa de orificios y la técnica de medición de presión diferencial. Las áreas generales de preocupación con este tipo de medición son la susceptibilidad de la placa de orificios para introducir errores inmediatos, las relativamente permanente pérdidas de presión alta introducidas en el sistema por el orificio y el rango de medida pequeña, por lo general típicamente es 3:1.
El digitalYEWFLO con Diámetro Reducido Tipo Medidor de Flujo Vortex Modelo de Yokogawa cuenta con una estructura de acero inoxidable fundido y un reductor concéntrico y de expansión que permite realizar unas mediciones de flujo estables en condiciones de bajo flujo. Esto amplía la gama de mediciones que se pueden realizar, desde las velocidades de flujo más altas hasta el extremo inferior del intervalo de flujo, que normalmente es difícil para los medidores de flujo Vortex, y asegura una salida de velocidad de flujo estable y exacta.
La Medición del Flujo de combustible diésel es una aplicación relativamente básica del medidor de flujo. Sin embargo, la medición del consumo neto del combustible en un generador diésel de 2.2 megavatios es particularmente complejo. El motor diésel requiere una línea de suministro de combustible (combustible del depósito al motor) y una línea de retorno de combustible (combustible del motor al tanque).
Yokogawa first introduced its renowned SUPER CONTROL™ in industrial controllers over a decade ago. This is a fuzzy logic alogrithm that eliminates overshoot from the desired set point and mimics the control expertise of the most experienced operator.
Se estima que casi dos tercios de petróleo descubierto en los Estados Unidos se encuentran atrapado en formaciones porosas. Hay aproximadamente 500,000 pozos abandonados que contienen dicho petróleo. Debido a este hecho las compañías petroleras están persiguiendo constantemente métodos para la recuperación de este petróleo.
Both centrifigal and axial compressors cannot be allowed to operate below the surge limit of the operating conditions. The machinery may be exposed to excessive stress and vibration. If the discharge flow demand is less than the compressor surge limit, some of that flow must be vented or recycled to the inlet to stay above surge.
La Virtualización y el Almacenamiento en la Nube se están convirtiendo en términos comunes. Los Líderes Mundiales en Tecnología de la Información (TI) anuncian sus nuevas soluciones de Virtualización y Almacenamiento en la Nube.
Debido a los eventos actuales de ataques de virus como Stuxnet y Flame, la demanda de seguridad informática se ha convertido en una alta prioridad dentro de la Automatización Industrial (IA). Desde el comienzo de la IA, el enfoque global para las tecnologías de seguridad se ha incrementado. Había una razón válida para el amplio escepticismo de la industria, dado que no había vulnerabilidades directas.
La Virtualización y el Almacenamiento en la Nube se están convirtiendo en términos comunes. Los líderes mundiales en Tecnología de la Información (TI) anuncian con sus nuevas soluciones de Virtualización y Almacenamiento en la Nube.
PID is an acronym for proportional band, integral and derivative. This control action allows a measurement (process variable) to be controlled at a desired set point by continuously adjusting a control output. These control parameters act on the error or deviation between set point and process variable.
Alarm management is not just a project that has a start and end date; it's a continuous cycle. Once the alarm system has been reviewed and improvements have been identified, we must check that controls are in place to ensure the alarm system remains functional. The key is to ensure that the system is continuously monitored and any changes are fully documented. There are seven key steps for alarm management. Rationalization is one of those critical steps.
The world of process automation is governed by procedures. While we like to refer to the process industries as being largely "continuous", this could not be further from the truth. Process manufacturing is constantly in flux.
Tuning PID controllers can seem a mystery. Parameters that provide effective control over a process one day fail to do so the next. The stability and responsiveness of a process seem to be at complete odds with each other. And controller equations include subtle differences that can baffle even the most experienced practitioners.
Recientemente, varios analistas del ARC Advisory Group y miembros de la gerencia tuvieron la oportunidad de sentarse con el nuevo Presidente de Yokogawa y COO, Sr. Takashi Nishijima, y varios otros altos ejecutivos de Yokogawa para discutir la presencia mundial de la compañía en la industria del gas y el petróleo.
This white paper provides an overview of how Yokogawa believes its customers can best prepare for and position themselves to benefit from IIoT-enabled technology and solutions and digitalization in general to emerge as the successful connected industrial enterprises of the future.
Yokogawa’s industrial automation (IA) product and service offerings, industry domain knowledge, and VigilantPlant approach – which emphasizes safe, secure, and uninterrupted operations -- provide a solid foundation for an Industrial Internet of Things that specifically addresses the requirements of process automation, particularly for the OT side of the equation. To be able to provide an equally solid foundation for the IT side, Yokogawa is partnering with Cisco Systems and other industry leaders.
Recently, there is an increasing demand for operation and monitoring of all the various controllers distributed in the field on the same screens to improve plant operation efficiency. The purpose of the Unified Gateway Station (UGS) is to connect external controllers, such as the STARDOM's FCN/FCJ autonomous controllers and other vendors' controllers, to the CENTUM VP integrated production control system and to operate and monitor those external controllers on the Human Interface Station (HIS) screens, the operation and monitoring screens for the CENTUM VP.
Vortex flow meters utilize a fluid phenomenon in which frequencies of Karman vortex streets released from a shedder bar inserted in a flow are proportional to flow velocities.
One solution packaged for production control systems today is a system comprising a PLC and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software that runs on a PC. An advantage of these systems is that they can be configured at considerably lower cost than systems that use dedicated devices as they use commercially available PCs.
As international price competition becomes increasingly fierce, high value-added, high-efficiency production is essential for the survival of production plants in the oil refining, chemical and other industries. On the other hand, if plant equipment, which is the foundation of these production industries fails, business opportunities will be lost due to loss of yield, environmental destruction, and weakened financial strength due to social compensation.
Wireless technology has a long history, and it began around the time that James C. Maxwell theoretically predicted and then proved the existence of electromagnetic waves in the 1860s, and when Heinrich R. Hertz experimentally confirmed the actual existence of the electromagnetic wave in 1888.
When a project is executed following the main automation contractor (MAC) method, front-end engineering and design (FEED) is conducted before actual delivery phases such as design, implementation, inspection, and shipment, to identify risks in advance and mitigate risks in delivery phases through the standardization of the basic functions and components.
Field instruments are expected to be equipped with diagnostic functions to predict abnormal process conditions, and are also expected to expand these functions. The ability to extract diagnostic information for prediction and prevention from various physical process quantities measured by devices and make it available allows the user to reduce non-essential and non-urgent maintenance and thus cut maintenance costs.
Yokogawa Electric Corporation promotes the standardization of FOUNDATION™ fieldbus as the communication foundation supporting Asset Excellence for VigilantPlant, which is an approach aimed at the advancement of plant instruments and equipment. With the recent dramatic advancement of fieldbus technologies, information processing technologies, and network speed, it has become possible to process various kinds of information inside the field sensors and transmit the results to the distributed control system (DCS) and host computer.
Large process industry companies have recently started building plants with world-class safety and profitability to reinforce their competitive edge in the global market. As for plant operations, support functions for improving operators' plant operation skills and for extending operators' maximum capability are required to the DCS so that an operator can expand the area of plant monitoring or operate a plant with higher cost- consciousness.
In 2000, we formed a technical tie-up with Shell Global Solutions (SGSI) to enter the advanced process control and optimization solution business. At the same time, we started marketing a solution based package comprising an Exasmoc multi-variable model-based predictive control function, an Exarqe property estimation function, an Exaspot online real-time optimizer and an MD control monitor & diagnosis function by taking full advantage of the SGSI advanced control and optimization technology (APC&O).
There is growing recognition of the importance of preventing serious accidents in the process control field in view of the potential scale of impact on society. The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 international standards call for the reduction of risk using safety instrumented systems (SIS) as well as the configuration of multiple protective layers in a process control system in order to prevent major accidents.
As plant operation becomes more intelligent and complex, the alarm system for safe and stable operation is becoming increasingly important. An alarm warns operators of an abnormal situation in a process and urges them to respond to it.
In plant sites, there are various places such as those affording an unobstructed view like tank yards, and others surrounded by metal pipes and equipment obstructing the view (hereafter referred to "pipe jungles"), often seen in oil refinery and chemical on-site plants. The frequency band of radio waves used for field wireless communication is 2.4 GHz, which has high straightness and its ability to go around things can hardly be expected.
The changes in social environment, such as globalization of enterprise activities, depletion of natural resources, and eco-oriented movement will affect the structure of mass production. Control systems must be prepared with flexibility and scalability in both size and function to adjust to the changes.
The engineering phase holds the largest ratios in control system configuration in terms of both time and money, so improving engineering efficiency is one of the biggest issues when it comes to system integration. In the STARDOM, Application Portfolios (APPF) are devised to dramatically slash engineering costs and increase software reliability.
In 2005, Yokogawa announced "VigilantPlant" as a concept to ward the realization of a type of plant operation that is considered ideal by our customers.
As industrial plant systems have increased in scale and their automatic control algorithms advanced, today's operators are required to have more advanced skills and knowledge of theplant systems and to learn the actions to be taken in response to any possible situations including emergencies.
As the world's societies become more connected, market competition is becoming more ruthless and transactions are performed at ever increasing speeds. Deregulation has ignited global competition throughout the world. The proliferation of Information and Internet technologies have accelerated the growth of global competition, with life cycles for high tech products having lives measured in "dog years" (in each normal year they advance seven years).
When considering improving the efficiency of plant operation, major focus is put on process units, control systems and production or operation management. However, it is also important to prepare a comfortable and safe environment for operators, who are trying to operate the plant more efficiently every day using control systems.
As a founding member of the Fieldbus Foundation and one of the companies on the board, Yokogawa Electric Corporation has contributed to the development of fieldbus specifications from the outset. Yokogawa Electric has lead the foundation by proposing the technical base for interoperability among other things.
The manufacturing industry has grown based on solid production technologies for creating quality products. However, the economic environment is changing dramatically, forcing manufacturing firms to face tough global competition; firms must ship the right products at the right time as the market requests.
Differential pressure transmitters, which serve as the core of field instrumentation, are widely used to measure the flow rate, pressure and density of liquids, gases and steam, as well as the level of liquid in a tank.
Safe plant operation has long been pursued in all industries. Specifically, in the process automation industry which involves many hazardous elements, safety measures including explosion-protected systems have been adopted based on numerous tragic experiences.
When evaluating mass flow rates using a primary device such as an orifice or nozzle in a differential pressure flow meter in order to make fluid density compensations, the upstream pressure (static pressure) and fluid temperature are measured in addition to the output of a regular differential pressure transmitter.
Improved plant operation efficiency and reduced maintenance costs based on appropriate predictive maintenance are the common objectives that need to be achieved in every manufacturing domain. Exaquantum is positioned above the Process Control System (PCS) layer and gathers and stores huge volumes of process and laboratory data over long terms.
For large scale geographically dispersed projects, there may be a hierarchy of individual Process Automation systems, which in turn are each responsible for a specific region, and are managed by a higher level system. Engineering of systems on this scale is a huge challenge, because each individual system has its own database and its own configuration.
Intelligent field instruments and process analyzers accumulate diverse field information including process values and diagnostic results. This data needs to be sent to upper systems such as distributed control systems (DCS) via digital communications such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus and analyzer buses, or hybrid communications such as HART and Brain, and visualized to enable the customer to utilize them for plant operations and maintenance.
Many field devices are now being connected to process control systems through fieldbus communication. These field devices have intelligence, and so many settings and adjustments can be made through fieldbus communication.
As for a controller used in a distributed control system (DCS) shown in Figure 1, covering as many applications as possible with a single controller will bring cost reduction effects such as easy engineering and a small controller installation area. Therefore, the controller is required to process large amounts of data more quickly.
More than ten years have passed since the first digitized field devices were introduced. These support either a hybrid communication protocol such as HART or a full digital communication protocol such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus.
The specifications of the ISA100.11a wireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard. The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.
There are already safety systems on the market that have achieved safety integrity level SIL3 of the functional safety standard, IEC61508. However, most of them have achieved SIL3 by conversion of modules into dual-redundant or triplex form.
The recent variety of industrial and railway accidents happening right before our very eyes make us painfully aware that "safety" must be put first and foremost. "Safety first" is a concept accepted by everyone and there is no room for disagreement. However, the author feels that, in some cases, the concrete objectives of "safety first" are not actually clear, and the grasp of the hazards is insufficient.
In recent years, safety and profitability have become ever more important in the process industry due to fierce global competition. Greater emphasis is being placed on highly efficient plant operation for reducing the increasing energy bill.
The business world surrounding the manufacturing industry is undergoing rapid and drastic changes. Achieving production activities that can respond swiftly to such environmental changes has become an urgent task.
As field instrumentation devices become increasingly digitized and computerized, interactive and remote access to a large quantity of field information becomes possible. This will increase the efficiency of plant equipment maintenance by reducing labor requirements in field patrol work for example.
In recent years it has become increasingly common for plants to be provided not only with the control layer of a production control system (DCS, etc.), but also with the protection layer of a safety instrumented system (SIS) to reduce the risk of industrial accidents. The safety instrumented system is indispensable for avoiding risks to a plant failure.
Instrumentation devices and equipment serve for plants as the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin, which are responsible for the five senses, and act as the central nervous system and brain do for human beings. The reliability and availability of such devices and equipment are the most important requirements of customers.
Vortex flow meters have been appreciated by users as volume flow meters, which can, in principle, be applied to any flow measurement of liquid, gas, or steam. Volume flow measurement is enough for substances with small variations in density such as liquid.
In 1988, Yokogawa launched the ADMAG series of magnetic flow meters with increased resistance to fluid noise and zero stability, employing dual frequency excitation which was developed based on its long-cultivated technology for flow measurement. Since then, the ADMAG family has augmented its application range with such models as explosion-proof and integral types, and a capacitance type.
Since the release of the DPharp EJ series in 1991 and the DPharp EJA series in 1994, nearly 1.2 million of these transmitters have been operating all over the world. Recently, we have also developed the EJX series of even more compact, lightweight and advanced transmitters with multi- sensing capabilities built using silicon resonant sensor technology.
The introduction of wireless technologies into plants is anticipated as one of the measures for implementing field digital solutions not only to reduce cable wiring costs but also to improve plant wide safety/stable operations, operating efficiency, and so on.
Yokogawa proposed the VigilantPlant concept as an ideal plant that achieves fully optimized operation where all the necessary information is given to all the operators involved in the plant operation. In VigilantPlant, operators are able to quickly respond to changes in the external environment while the production activities run without any interruption.
Recently, standardization of procedural automation of manual operations has been promoted mainly by the International Society of Automation (ISA), and the functional requirements necessary for automation are being studied by the ISA106 committee in the US.
Upgrading and renewal of plant facilities, including production control systems and safety instrumented systems, are essential for maintaining safe and efficient plant operation. Even though these activities are categorized as R&R, they require investment and customers are often required to evaluate the profitability for obtaining approval.
A dynamic simulator is a software tool for building a virtual plant in a computer by modeling an existing plant or a plant to be built.
The introduction of wireless into industrial monitoring and control not only reduces wiring and maintenance costs but also expands its applications to include those which are impossible with wired systems, such as monitoring points which have to be given up due to the difficulty of the construction, and monitoring of points on rotating or frequently moved objects.
In recent years, more field wireless devices have been used in hazardous areas. Meanwhile, in plants that are usually recognized as hazardous areas, there are numerous metallic tanks and pipes that easily shield or reflect radio waves, as discussed later, thus resulting in a poor environment for wireless communication.
Environment and safety are major topics on a global scale in recent times. As symbolized by the effectuation of the Kyoto Protocol, an interest in preserving the environment is growing worldwide, and there is also a tendency to criticize more severely, occurrences of industrial accidents that are accompanied by environmental contamination or which may cause damage, etc., to residents in the surrounding areas.
Conventional safety instrumented system (SIS) is typically installed separated from a distributed control system (DCS) to eliminate interference from the DCS and assure safety. However, users increasingly wish to integrate SIS with DCS while maintaining the safety of safety controllers.
To improve the efficiency of operations, production control systems are working together more closely with information systems. As a result, security measures have become indispensable for production control systems though they have not been emphasized to date. Because many production control systems are used for critical infrastructure, some malware tries to attack them.
In recent years, expectations for control systems using wireless communications have been increasing in the process control market. This is because these systems do not require power and communication wiring for field instruments, enabling reduced initial and maintenance costs, and easy installation.
Yokogawa has been leading the process automation industries as one of the pioneers in field digital technologies represented by the FOUNDATION fieldbus™ and Field Device Tool/Device Type Manager (FDT/DTM).
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