지열발전

지열에너지는 기상 조건에 의존하지 않기 때문에 일 년 내내 안정적인 전력을 공급할 수 있습니다. 또한 어떤 연료도 지상에서 태우지 않으며 매우 적은 양의 이산화탄소만 배출되므로 환경친화적입니다. 태평양, 일본, 필리핀, 인도네시아, 뉴질랜드, 멕시코, 코스타리카, 미국 등의 국가에서 태평양 연안 벨트 ("불의 고리"라고도 함)를 따라 풍부한 지열 자원이 있습니다. 다른 지열 활동 지역에 위치한 아이슬란드, 터키 및 이탈리아와 같은 국가들과 협력합니다. Yokogawa는 현재까지 일본, 동남아시아 및 기타 지역의 30개 지열발전 프로젝트를 실행한 경험을 바탕으로 지열발전 시스템의 신뢰성 및 유지 관리 효율성을 향상시키는 다양한 측정 및 제어 기술을 제공하고 있습니다.

Customer Challenge

부식성 환경에서의 기기 부식 방지

Solution

Yokogawa의 통합 생산 관리 시스템에 들어가는 인쇄 회로 기판에는 모두 황화수소 내성 코팅이 되어 있으며 모든 부식 방지 코팅이 모든 Yokogawa 필드 장치에 적용됩니다.

Enabling Technologies

EJX/EJA Series Pressure Transmitters/Differential Pressure Transmitters

DPharp 디지털 압력 송신기 시리즈는 트랜스미터 기술에서 가장 혁신적인 기술 중 하나인 DPharp (Differential Pressure Precision Resonance Pressure) 센서를 사용합니다.


YTA Series Temperature Transmitters

YTA 시리즈 온도 트랜스미터는 센서 입력을 4~20 mA, HART 또는 FOUNDATION™ 필드 버스 신호로 변환합니다. 이는 기존의 온도 계측기에서 종종 경험하게 되는 와이어 저항 및 신호 잡음의 단점을 제거합니다.


Wireless Transmitters: EJX B Series, YTA510, YTMX580

무선 솔루션의 유연성은 인프라 비용을 줄이고 과거 쉽지 않았던 배선 비용이 많이 발생하는 위치에 트랜스미터를 설치할 수 있습니다.


FLXA21 Modular 2-wire Liquid Analyzer

FLXA21은 차세대 모듈식 액체 분석기로 유연하게 pH/ORP를 측정하고 전도성, 유도 전도성 및 용존 산소량을 측정할 수 있습니다. FLXA21은 또한 동일한 유형의 센서를 최대 2개까지 설치할 수 있기 때문에 설치 비용을 줄이고 공간을 절약할 수 있습니다.


PRM Plant Resource Manager

Plant Resource Manager (PRM)는 예측 유지 보수를 쉽게 해줍니다. 시스템 및 장치 오작동을 조기에 감지하면 치명적인 오류를 예방할 수 있습니다.

 

Customer Challenge

지열 발전소에서 상당한 거리에 위치한 스팀 웰 및 재주입 웰과 같은 시설의 원격 모니터링 및 제어를 신뢰성 있게 수행

Solution

Yokogawa는 원격 I/O 모듈을 설치하고 광섬유 중복 링 토폴로지를 사용하여 통합 생산 관리 시스템과 현장 장치 간의 안정적인 통신을 보장합니다. 무선 필드 장치는 배선이 어려운 곳에서 사용됩니다.

Enabling Technologies

STARDOM Network-based Control System

듀얼 리던던트 및 저전력 구성은 STARDOM 하이브리드 PL /지능형 RTU에서 사용할 수 있습니다. STARDOM은 HART, Modbus, FOUNDATION™ 필드 버스 및 기타 네트워크 프로토콜을 지원합니다.


FAST/TOOLS SCADA

FAST/TOOLS 패키지는 신재생 에너지 애플리케이션의 성능을 최적화합니다. 고가용성 및 성능을 보장하고 온라인 구성을 지원합니다.


Wireless Transmitters: EJX B Series, YTA510, YTMX580

무선 솔루션의 유연성은 인프라 비용을 줄이고 과거에는 쉽지 않았던 배선 비용이 엄청나게 많은 위치에 트랜스미터를 설치할 수 있습니다.

 

Customer Challenge

지열발전소와 상당한 거리에있는 장비를 효율적으로 유지 관리

Solution

Yokogawa의 PRM (Plant Resource Manager)은 장치 상태를 원격으로 모니터링하고 설정을 변경함으로써 유지 관리 효율성을 향상시키는 통합 장치 관리 소프트웨어 패키지입니다. 작업자가 문제 해결 및 기타 작업을 위해 지열 사이트에서 작업하는 시간을 최소화하므로 인체 위험을 초래할 수 있는 황화수소 가스에 대한 노출을 최소화합니다.

Enabling Technologies

PRM Plant Resource Manager

Plant Resource Manager (PRM)는 예측 유지 보수를 쉽게 해줍니다. 시스템 및 장치 오작동을 조기에 감지하면 치명적인 오류를 예방할 수 있습니다.


CENTUM VP Integrated Production Control System

CENTUM VP 통합 제어 시스템은 재생 가능 에너지 분야에서 최적의 생산성과 수익성을 위한 중단 없는  "Uptime 전용"시스템 성능을 보장합니다.

* Uptime : 가동시간


STARDOM Network-based Control System

듀얼 리던던트 및 저전력 구성은 STARDOM 하이브리드 PLC/지능형 RTU에서 사용할 수 있습니다. STARDOM은 HART, Modbus, FOUNDATION™ 필드 버스 및 기타 네트워크 프로토콜을 지원합니다.


FAST/TOOLS SCADA

TFAST/TOOLS 패키지는 신재생 에너지 애플리케이션의 성능을 최적화합니다. 고가용성 및 성능을 보장하고 온라인 구성을 지원합니다.

 

Geothermal Power Generation Process

스팀웰은 지하 깊숙이 위치한 지열 저장소에서 증기와 뜨거운 물로 구성된 유체를 끌어내기 위한 설비입니다. 유체 혼합물은 증기로부터 습기를 제거하기 위한 증기 분리기로 유입되고, 증기는 전기 발생기의 터빈을 구동시키는데 사용됩니다. 터빈에서 배출된 저온 증기는 증기 응축기를 통과하여 수증기를 액체 상태로 되돌려 보내고 물은 재주입 웰을 통해 지하 저장소로 되돌아갑니다.

Control and Measurement Technologies

Plant-wide Systems and Instrumentation

Information

  • Operation support
  • Operation training
  • Plant asset management

Control

  • Integrated monitoring and control
  • Safety instrumentation
  • Remote monitoring and control
  • Wireless communication

Measurement

  • Flow rate
  • Pressure
  • Liquid level
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Conductivity
Processes
Fluid Transportation Main Geothermal Power Turbine
  • Separator water level control
  • Separator pressure control
  • Hot water return pump control
  • pH control
  • Steam production well/ injection well remote monitoring and control
  • Steam pressure control
  • Emergency vent valve operation
  • Main turbine control
  • Condenser level control
  • Cooling water control
Overview:

Aboitiz Power Corporation is a holding company that was set up by the Aboitiz Group to oversee its investments in power generation, distribution, retail, and services. The company owns and operates several hydroelectric and geothermal power plants as well as a number of non-renewable power facilities throughout the Philippines. It also owns distribution utilities that are centered in high-growth areas in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

Overview:
  • Operator intervention during the automated plant and turbine startup and shutdown processes is minimized
  • Greatly reduces operator work load and errors, and mitigate thermal and physical stress on the turbine
Overview:

Facing serious environmental problems for the whole earth, clean energy using solar, wind, geothermal, tidal, etc... to reduce CO2 emissions is an inevitable matter. Renewable energy providers need economical/reliable/efficient solutions. Yokogawa provides a reliable data acquisition system with high accuracy for measurement and control instruments.

Overview:

Hot rocks and water come together in select areas to produce renewable energy. CX2000s networked to US/UP controllers provide primary control with distributed backup control for steam turbines.

Overview:

Geothermal power plants create electricity from geothermal energy. These power plants are similar to other steam turbine station; however their heat source is that of the earth's core. The created steam is used to turn the turbine for the production of electricity. Technologies include Dry steam, Flash steam and Binary cycle power stations with Binary cycle being the most common geothermal plant in current production. In the process of geothermal power generation the facility needs to monitor various processes, as in this case steam line pressure sits in remote from control room's location.

Overview:

The worlds of process automation and production management have been converging for some time. What once used to be islands of automation and production management functionality connected through highly proprietary integration schemes that were costly to maintain have developed into integrated platforms that provide seamless data exchange between the world of automation and the plant floor, the functions of production and operations management, and integration with business level systems.

Overview:

Process automation end users are under more pressure than ever to do more with less. The current economic climate means that many automation capital projects are on hold. With capital budgets tighter than ever, users instead focus on operational budgets (where cost cutting is also a key concern), or on automation investments with a very rapid return on investment.

Overview:

Yokogawa has come a long way in making its message clear to the world of process automation. Last year, the company embarked on a full-scale global marketing campaign to make customers aware of the company's focus on system reliability, security, dependability, and robustness. Dubbed "Vigilance", the campaign created a unified message for the company and greatly helped expand awareness of the Yokogawa brand and corporate philosophy.

Overview:

The automation suppliers that will be successful in the long term will be those that effectively address application or industry specific problems for end users with a value proposition that cannot be ignored. These problems exist throughout the process industries today, and they won't be solved by simply offering a product, but through a combination of hardware, software, services, application expertise, and knowledge.

Overview:

In ARC's view, customers need a compelling business value proposition to justify investment in any kind of automation. Vigilance and VigilantPlant were created with this in mind. Yokogawa's vision with VigilantPlant is to create an environment where plant personnel and operators are well informed, alert, and ready to take action. 

Overview:

In today's dynamic industrial marketplace, the only constant is change. Raw material costs, energy costs, market demands, environmental and safety regulations, technology, and even the nature of the labor force itself are constantly changing, and not always in predictable directions.

Overview:

This white paper provides an overview of how Yokogawa believes its customers can best prepare for and position themselves to benefit from IIoT-enabled technology and solutions and digitalization in general to emerge as the successful connected industrial enterprises of the future.

Overview:

Yokogawa’s industrial automation (IA) product and service offerings, industry domain knowledge, and VigilantPlant approach – which emphasizes safe, secure, and uninterrupted operations -- provide a solid foundation for an Industrial Internet of Things that specifically addresses the requirements of process automation, particularly for the OT side of the equation. To be able to provide an equally solid foundation for the IT side, Yokogawa is partnering with Cisco Systems and other industry leaders.

Overview:

Recently, there is an increasing demand for operation and monitoring of all the various controllers distributed in the field on the same screens to improve plant operation efficiency. The purpose of the Unified Gateway Station (UGS) is to connect external controllers, such as the STARDOM's FCN/FCJ autonomous controllers and other vendors' controllers, to the CENTUM VP integrated production control system and to operate and monitor those external controllers on the Human Interface Station (HIS) screens, the operation and monitoring screens for the CENTUM VP.

Overview:

Recently, manufacturing industries are trying to slash the total cost of ownership (TCO). Batch processes are not exceptions. Until recently, in comparison to continuous processes, batch processes have generally not yet undergone systematization and standardization.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

As industrial plant systems have increased in scale and their automatic control algorithms advanced, today's operators are required to have more advanced skills and knowledge of theplant systems and to learn the actions to be taken in response to any possible situations including emergencies.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

The trend of open system architecture is becoming an important issue with distributed control systems (hereinafter abbreviated as DCSs). To meet this demand, the operation and monitoring functions, and the system generation functions of the CENTUM CS 3000 system are designed to support Windows NT and OLE for Process Control (OPC).

Overview:

As more fieldbus devices are made practicable, demand is increasing for a distributed control system (DCS) which integrates fieldbus devices in its engineering, operation, and monitoring environments. Conventionally, control has been implemented by the dual-redundant CPUs and control bus within a DCS; however, sufficient reliability must be ensured even when it is distributed over field networks.

Overview:

The recent increase of devices enabled for a field network such as the FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus is phenomenal. This has been amplifying a requirement for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be capable of constituting a more pliant and efficient production control system by means of flexible connections to field networks in addition to traditional 4 to 20 mA signals.

Overview:

The environment surrounding process control systems has changed dramatically as the performance of personal computers improves and the Windows operating system advances, there has been a move towards the trend of open architecture. As we are already aware, in addition to the traditional high reliability level and the unique operability there has been an increase in demand for the interoperability of human- machine interfaces (HMI), which are responsible for the operation and monitoring of our distributed control system (DCS).

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

Drastic changes in the economy of manufacturing industries, has led to increasing demand for plant operations to reduce personnel, improve efficiency, and increase the operation rate of facilities. On the other hand, for plants to operate safely, improvements in reliability and operational safety cannot be neglected.

Overview:

In this day and age, just simply buying a personal computer, taking it home and turning it on will enable you to be taken to the world of Internet. In such an era, communication connection capability and prospects is increasing in importance. DCSs are no exception for concern.

Overview:

The manuals of control systems such as a DCS provide a vast amount of information depending on their multi-functionality and functional integration. A conventional large-scale control system our company offers comes with more than 10,000 pages of paper documents.

Overview:

Yokogawa Electric has been using Pair & Spare method as a reliability-enhancing technology for its line of distributed control systems (DCS) since the release of the CENTUM CS in 1993. As a result, the system has achieved an availability factor of seven 9's (99.99999%) for the record of operation to date.

Overview:

Field instruments are expected to be equipped with diagnostic functions to predict abnormal process conditions, and are also expected to expand these functions. The ability to extract diagnostic information for prediction and prevention from various physical process quantities measured by devices and make it available allows the user to reduce non-essential and non-urgent maintenance and thus cut maintenance costs.

Overview:

Safe plant operation has long been pursued in all industries. Specifically, in the process automation industry which involves many hazardous elements, safety measures including explosion-protected systems have been adopted based on numerous tragic experiences.

Overview:

Since the release of the DPharp EJ series in 1991 and the DPharp EJA series in 1994, nearly 1.2 million of these transmitters have been operating all over the world. Recently, we have also developed the EJX series of even more compact, lightweight and advanced transmitters with multi- sensing capabilities built using silicon resonant sensor technology.

Overview:

In recent years, more field wireless devices have been used in hazardous areas. Meanwhile, in plants that are usually recognized as hazardous areas, there are numerous metallic tanks and pipes that easily shield or reflect radio waves, as discussed later, thus resulting in a poor environment for wireless communication.

Overview:

The first stage in creating next-generation production control system that achieves innovative plant operation is providing "Visualized operation". "Visualized operation" for the customer means that he can reliably access and visualize plant data regardless of plant location and time.

Overview:

The manufacturing industry has grown based on solid production technologies for creating quality products. However, the economic environment is changing dramatically, forcing manufacturing firms to face tough global competition; firms must ship the right products at the right time as the market requests.

Overview:

CENTUM VP is a next-generation Integrated Production Control System which provides solutions to improve operation efficiency (Operational Excellence) based on Yokogawa's VigilantPlant concept. In the development of Integrated Production Control Systems, we have expanded the functions of the Human Machine Interface (HMI) maintaining the main essence of CENTUM series, regardless of the changes of platforms.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

To date, Yokogawa has focused on DCS (Distributed Control System) which control the entire power generation plant, including boilers, in the electric power industry. In contrast, turbomachinery control has been handled by turbine manufacturers, but as the electric power market has been active internationally, especially in China and India, in recent years, Yokogawa has been developing turbomachinery control systems to to further develop the electric power industry.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

There has been increasing demand for cost reductions and lower-priced products in the manufacturing industry, and maintaining cost competitiveness and achieving optimum costs have become necessary for the survival of manufacturers. This calls for minimizing TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) over the whole life cycle of plants and maximizing TVO (Total Value of Ownership).

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

Process automation involves both operation and maintenance. Plant operation and monitoring are mainly conducted by a control system such as CENTUM, while equipment maintenance is handled by Plant Asset Management (PAM) such as Plant Resource Manager (PRM).

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

As compared to Distributed Control Systems (DCS) such as CENTUM VP that monitors the operations of the overall plant, PRM is a type of Plant Asset Management (PAM) software package that primarily focuses on the maintenance of devices and instruments.

Overview:

Asset Excellence (AE) provides a set of solutions for maintaining a plant in good condition at reasonable cost to ensure that it works as a production infrastructure. To reduce maintenance costs without causing a risk to production, it is necessary to change from breakdown maintenance to predictive or preventive maintenance.

Overview:

Yokogawa Electric Corporation promotes the standardization of FOUNDATION™ fieldbus as the communication foundation supporting Asset Excellence for VigilantPlant, which is an approach aimed at the advancement of plant instruments and equipment. With the recent dramatic advancement of fieldbus technologies, information processing technologies, and network speed, it has become possible to process various kinds of information inside the field sensors and transmit the results to the distributed control system (DCS) and host computer.

Overview:

In plant sites, there are various places such as those affording an unobstructed view like tank yards, and others surrounded by metal pipes and equipment obstructing the view (hereafter referred to "pipe jungles"), often seen in oil refinery and chemical on-site plants. The frequency band of radio waves used for field wireless communication is 2.4 GHz, which has high straightness and its ability to go around things can hardly be expected.

Overview:

In 2005, Yokogawa announced "VigilantPlant" as a concept to ward the realization of a type of plant operation that is considered ideal by our customers.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

Environmental friendliness (E) must be assessed in today's product design in addition to the conventional design considerations of quality (Q), cost (C), and lead time (D). Hence, the product design system must be urgently restructured in order to minimize the environmental impact of a product throughout its life-cycle from purchase of the materials and parts, through manufacturing and distribution, to use and disposal.

Overview:

As a company that has strong relationship with nature and provides products using nature's blessings, Mercian Corporation is committed to the environment. Its environmental philosophy is "Mercian thanks nature's blessings and capability that sustain life, and seeks to balance environmental preservation with creating an affluent society."

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

As for a controller used in a distributed control system (DCS) shown in Figure 1, covering as many applications as possible with a single controller will bring cost reduction effects such as easy engineering and a small controller installation area. Therefore, the controller is required to process large amounts of data more quickly.

Overview:

More than ten years have passed since the first digitized field devices were introduced. These support either a hybrid communication protocol such as HART or a full digital communication protocol such as FOUNDATION Fieldbus.

Overview:

The specifications of the ISA100.11a wireless communication standard of the International Society of Automation (ISA) for industrial automation were published, and companies are developing products based on the standard. The ISA100.11a has many features such as high reliability including redundancy, network scalability, and support for various protocols for industrial automation.

Overview:

For safe plant operations, it is critical to correctly understand the conditions encountered by operators inside the plants. In relation to this topic, human cognition has been studied in various fields such as human factors and ergonomics.

Overview:

As field instrumentation devices become increasingly digitized and computerized, interactive and remote access to a large quantity of field information becomes possible. This will increase the efficiency of plant equipment maintenance by reducing labor requirements in field patrol work for example. 

Overview:

The requirements for water supply and sewage services are becoming increasingly strict, such as consolidation of facilities, operational efficiency, lower cost, and information transparency due to stagnant demand. There is also demand for greater use of information technologies (IT), encouraged by the government's e-Japan strategy.

Overview:

Industrial automation (IA) systems and products, which utilize measurement, control and information technologies, are used across the world as fundamental infrastructure for achieving safe, stable and highly efficient plant operation. In order to keep the systems and products effective throughout the plant lifecycle, customers need to periodically check their effectiveness and take prompt action if any problem is identified.

Overview:

Global market pressures are causing businesses world wide to strive to lower manufacturing costs and to become more agile companies in order to quickly respond to changes in market demands and to fend off competitive threats. Yokogawa's customers in all industries and markets are responding to this pressure by working to more closely integrate their plant manufacturing systems with their enterprise wide business systems in a seamless manner.

Overview:

Recently, standardization of procedural automation of manual operations has been promoted mainly by the International Society of Automation (ISA), and the functional requirements necessary for automation are being studied by the ISA106 committee in the US.

Overview:

For a coal fired power generation plant (hereafter referred to as "BTG facilities," in which "BTG" stands for boiler, steam turbine, and generator) supplying power to a large-scale production plant, the CO2 emissions from such facilities are a critical issue today.

Yokogawa Technical Report
Overview:

Environment and safety are major topics on a global scale in recent times. As symbolized by the effectuation of the Kyoto Protocol, an interest in preserving the environment is growing worldwide, and there is also a tendency to criticize more severely, occurrences of industrial accidents that are accompanied by environmental contamination or which may cause damage, etc., to residents in the surrounding areas.

Overview:

In recent years, expectations for control systems using wireless communications have been increasing in the process control market. This is because these systems do not require power and communication wiring for field instruments, enabling reduced initial and maintenance costs, and easy installation.

Overview:

Yokogawa has been leading the process automation industries as one of the pioneers in field digital technologies represented by the FOUNDATION fieldbus™ and Field Device Tool/Device Type Manager (FDT/DTM).

Overview:

Due to emerging competitors from the rapidly growing countries such as India and China and the global economic downturn triggered by the Lehman shock, many companies in the process industries are struggling to survive the severe global competition.

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