Reliable and Low-cost SCADA-RTU Communications Using GPRS and Dynamic IP
This application note provides an overview of communications between remote terminal units (RTUs) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. In addition to covering the General Packet Radio
The cost reduction achieved by using GPRSService (GPRS) telemetry communications link between Yokogawa's STARDOM FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs and FAST/TOOLS SCADA package, this document discusses the following:
- Support of various internet service provider (ISP) configurations
- The failover communications capability of GPRS
- Reduction of initial costs by using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) network components
- Reduction of communications costs by reducing the number of data packets
Remote data monitoring is required in many industries and applications such as oil & gas, power, waste water treatment, and environmental monitoring. In these applications, a fairly large number of RTUs in remote and/or hazardous locations collect data from devices and send log data and alarms to a SCADA terminal in a central control room (CCR). Telemetry devices installed between the RTUs and the SCADA system send and receive the data. Some big concerns about using telemetry are cost (initial expenditure and communications fees) and communications stability. As the IT network infrastructure improves in remote areas, commodity network infrastructure can be more readily used in telemetry applications, reducing initial startup costs and affording relatively stable communications.
Cost Reduction by Using GPRS
Conventional telephone lines are billed per minute of connection time regardless of whether data is actually sent. On the other hand, when using the GPRS mobile data service on a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) system, billing is based on the number of communication packets and is independent of connection time. To make the most of the advantages of GPRS, Yokogawa's STARDOM FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs and FAST/TOOLS SCADA package have several functions that reduce the number of packets that must be sent. This dramatically lowers communication fees while no concessions are made in response time (e.g. for alarming). In a recent project, this succeeded in reducing the number of packets by 80%.
Note: Transfer rates of GPRS are theoretically up to 171.2kbps. However, transfer rates of between 30-50 kbps are common because they are depend on several factors such as distance to the base transfer station (BTS) and numbers of users in the same area.
Report by Exception
The amount of log data on an RTU would be huge if all data were stored. To reduce the amount of stored data, the FCN/FCJ logs only the data that has changed since the last time stamp. FAST/ TOOLS periodically monitors for changed data on the FCN/FCJ and acquires the log data only in situations such as when there is some change in the data, an alarm occurs, or the refresh button is pressed by the operator. When FAST/TOOLS reads the log data, it is timestamped and merged into its trend data buffer to ensure a seamless trend data graph, even if the network fails and needs to be recovered.
Support of Various ISP Configuration
The FCN/FCJ RTUs can connect to the GPRS/GSM networks provided by ISPs. Though the types of services vary according to country and region, ISPs typically perform internet protocol (IP) address assignment.
An IP address is a unique address that is assigned to devices so that they can identify and communicate with each other on a network. There are two types of IP addresses: a static IP address, which is a unique and fixed IP address on a network, and a dynamic IP address, which is assigned by means of the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) every time a device starts.
RTU and SCADA Communication Using a Static IP Address
An RTU and a SCADA send and receive data based on a statc IP address.
Static IP address
A SCADA station acquires log data from an RTU by using static IP address.
RTU and SCADA Communication Using a Dynamic IP Address
The use of a dynamic IP address is often necessary if an ISP does not provide a static IP address service or if the cost of a static IP address service is much higher than a dynamic IP, making the provision of a static IP to every RTU commercially unfeasible. In this case, the Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS) is required to convert the host name to a dynamic IP address so that the RTUs and SCADA can communicate with each other using a fixed host name. Even if a local provider cannot provide DDNS service, FAST/TOOLS and the FCN/FCJ RTU can communicate with each other via a DDNS server that is located in the same computer room as the FAST/TOOLS system. The FCN/FCJ RTU autonomously sends its own host name and IP address to the DDNS server, which has a fixed IP address, and then the DDNS manages the FCN/FCJ RTU's host name and IP address.
Dynamic IP address
A SCADA station acquires log data from an RTU by using fixed host name.
Failover Communication of GPRS
As you may already know, GSM cellular phone networks can be affected by weather conditions or electrical interference, and in the worst case, communications can be lost. In the same way, a GPRS link over a GSM network connecting a SCADA system to RTUs can be cut at any time. However, the FCN/FCJ RTUs can automatically reestablish the communications link if this occurs.
Reconnection by Monitoring Point-to-Point (PPP) Status
The FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs establish a connection with the GPRS network using an embedded PPP protocol. If the PPP communications link is lost, the FCN/FCJ RTUs monitor the PPP status and at regular intervals attempt to re-establish the connection with the GPRS network. With this function, the connection between FAST/TOOLS and the FCN/FCJ RTUs is guaranteed. This, combined with the system's capability to keep a log, ensures that data is never lost: FAST/TOOLS will automatically "catch-up" as soon as a communications link is reestablished.
SCADA telemetry systems used in oil & gas, environment monitoring, and water distribution applications have to be capable of covering a wide area and functioning under harsh conditions, and must be at the same time affordable and inexpensive to operate. With its FAST/TOOL SCADA package and FCN/FCJ intelligent RTUs, Yokogawa is helping its customers improve cost competitiveness and improve quality.
Additional Industries: Environment Monitoring
Onshore unconventional drilling is commonly used in the extraction of oil and natural gas today. There are an increasing number of multi-well pad type drilling programs in most of the active plays. Different drilling technics are used to decrease drilling time, lower environmental impact and to improve initial and estimated ultimate recovery.
Floating Production Storage & Offloading (FPSO)
- Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading (FPSO) unit
- Offshore production facility
- Stores processing equipment, produced hydrocarbons storage
- Feasible to produce oil in remote areas, deeper water
Offshore (FPSO FLNG & FSRU)
Offshore exploration and production requires maximum uptime under harsh conditions. Manned and unmanned facilities need reliable integrated control and safety systems (ICSS) with advanced remote monitoring capabilities. Yokogawa has state-of-the-art technology and extensive experience in executing offshore projects of all sizes and automation levels of complexity.
Oil & Gas
Yokogawa has a wealth of experience in every part of the oil and gas business, from offshore and onshore facilities to pipelines, terminals, and deepwater operations. We provide solutions that enhance safety, ensure accurate and reliable operation, and increase plant efficiency.
The onshore upstream industry faces ever higher demands and greater challenges with increasingly difficult and hostile environments in which it must operate.
In the mid 1970s, Yokogawa entered the power business with the release of the EBS Electric Control System. Since then, Yokogawa has steadfastly continued with the development of our technologies and capabilities for providing the best services and solutions to our customers worldwide.
Yokogawa has operated the global power solutions network to play a more active role in the dynamic global power market. This has allowed closer teamwork within Yokogawa, bringing together our global resources and industry know-how. Yokogawa's power industry experts work together to bring each customer the solution that best suits their sophisticated requirements.
- Topsides processing and handling on the production platform prep extracted hydrocarbons for transport
- Yokogawa integrated control/monitoring maximize topsides operations productivity and availability
The upstream industry includes offshore and onshore activities including wellhead automation, fractionation, completion, and separation to recover and prepare underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas.
As petroleum is brought to the surface, it must be separated prior to transport. Primary and secondary separation stages commonly distribute gas flow, water flow, and oil flow in three phase separation. Gas movement requires pipeline and can include a fractionation process in the upstream stage prior to movement. Liquids can be placed into a tanks or pipelines and sent for processing, requiring accurate level measurements.
Water & Wastewater
Water resources are finite, and therefore contributing to a sustainable water cycle is one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yokogawa has been providing advanced digital control solutions for the stable supply of clean and safe water, wastewater treatment for protecting the water environment, water loss management, and optimization of plant operation for reducing CO2 emissions and running costs. Yokogawa works with you to increase your efficiency while ensuring compliance standards …. Smart measuring IA to IA.
Wellhead & Separation
The wellhead provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. The surface pressure control is provided by a christmas tree, which is installed on top of the wellhead. Isolation valves and choke equipment physically control the flow of well fluids when the well goes into production. Various automation packages are added to locally or remotely monitor, control and optimize production from each well or multi-well pad. Oilfield separators employ a pressure vessel to separate well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components which are then transferred to pipelines or localized storage depending on the areas infrastructure.
Related Products & Solutions
FCJ All-in-one PLC/RTU
The brick type model FCJ autonomous controller fulfills the basic requirements of the utility control. It also provides the reliability for the SCADA communication with network redundant capability.
SCADA Software (FAST/TOOLS)
Originating as the Flexible Advanced System Techniques (FAST) project, FAST/TOOLS today is a comprehensive, fully-integrated SCADA application suite. Powerful and flexible, FAST/TOOLS serves installations ranging from 50-point unit processes to multimillion-point offshore production and pipeline systems that extend over thousands of miles.
Process Control PLC/RTU
- Process control PLC and Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)
- Maximize operational excellence
- Process plants
- Remote locations
Our IoT-enabled Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system optimizes automation and monitoring throughout the entire enterprise.
Contact a Yokogawa Expert to learn how we can help you solve your challenges.