Industry: Refining, Chemical, Food and Beverage
Product: Inductive Conductivity Process Liquid Analyzer
Brine is a solution of salt in water. While a typical expectation would be for it to contain sodium chloride (NaCl), the “salt” used to create the brine is not always pure NaCl. It could be a mixture of chlorides such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, and others.
Brine is used in a wide variety of applications from household food preparation to industrial processes such as cheese production, refining, textile dyeing, and chemical manufacturing. It is also used as an anti-icing or de-icing agent commercially or in municipalities as a final product applied to roadway pavement or parking lots.
Depending on the application, the salt concentration can range up to 26%. For example, 3.5% is a typical seawater salinity concentration whereas lower concentrations are used for brining food. Higher concentrations in the range of 23-24% are used for anti-icing. These concentrations are obtained either by mixing a full-strength solution with water or mixing a solid salt with water to achieve the desired concentration.
Traditionally, a grab sample measurement—one sample taken at one time—is used to determine the brine concentration. The salometer and refractometer are common measurement instruments.
A Salometer is a hydrometer that indicates the percentage of salt in a solution by measuring the liquid density.
- Since a salometer is not temperature compensated, the brine mixture must be the same temperature as shown in a reference comparison table.
- Air bubbles trapped within the system will affect the reading.
- Proper test setup and reading level are imperative to ensure accurate measurement.
A Refractometer works on the principle of light entering a prism that has a unique refractive index or a Brix reading depending on the solution and concentration. The most common field refractometers measure the salinity and/or specific gravity of the brine mixture.
- Since the refractive index depends on temperature, it is vital to ensure that the instrument can compensate for temperature.
- Hand refractometers are light-sensitive and, due to the interpretation required to produce a reading, are vulnerable to human error.
Both measurements rely on grab sampling. Conductivity measurement can be used as a reliable indicator of the real-time brine concentration. Using an online process analyzer removes the need for timely grab sample analysis. Figure 1 shows the correlation between conductivity and concentration for four common salts.
Some salts curves have a peak conductivity value before the saturation point. Before this peak value is reached, conductivity correlates positively with concentration; after the peak, it correlates negatively. In Figure 1, the example shows the calcium or magnesium chloride curve that exhibits this “peak.”
If the concentration range passes through the peak for that chemical, the conductivity value (except the peak value) represents two different concentration values. Therefore, any application near the peak of a particular solution must be carefully controlled. Normally, this is easily done when the starting concentration point is known and correlating flow and pump time.
Since conductivity measurement is also temperature-dependent, temperature compensation is needed. However, in some brine manufacturing processes, the starting sample and the water used may have varying temperatures—and the built-in temperature element used for compensation is not quick enough to respond. Therefore, a change in the conductivity reading that is simply due to the temperature change may be observed. To overcome this, a standard conductivity is used in conjunction with an external RTD that responds more quickly to temperature changes than the built-in RTD that is covered with polyether ether ketone (PEEK) material.
Increased efficiency and reduced operating costs can be achieved by using the Yokogawa Inductive Conductivity series line of products.
- One sensor will measure the entire conductivity range.
- Since the sensor is non-contacting, it is not affected by chemicals and requires less overall maintenance.
Toroidal or Inductive Conductivity Measurement:
Process Liquid Analyzer:
2-wire 24 VDC Loop powered FLXA202 analyzer
4-wire AC/DC FLXA402 analyzer
With the inductive conductivity, ISC40 series, one sensor can measure the full range of conductivity from 0-2000 mS/Cm. Steam sterilization capability is possible since the measurements can be performed at process solution temperatures of -10 to 130°C and pressures no greater than 2 MPa (20 kgf/cm2).
ISC40G General Purpose Sensor
ISC40S Intrinsically Safe Sensor
- Available in PEEK and PFA material for more aggressive chemicals
Process Connection/ Holder Selection:
Option 1: Flange connection
Option 2: ISC40FS/ISC40FF Insertion of flow-through assembly
Option 3: PR10 Retractable assembly
Note: For additional information on this application, please contact the Yokogawa Process Liquid Analyzer specialists.
Yokogawa has been serving the bulk chemical market globally and is the recognized leader in this market. With products, solutions, and industry expertise, Yokogawa understands your market and production needs and will work with you to provide a reliable, and cost-effective solution through the lifecycle of your plant.
Chemical plants rely on continuous and batch production processes, each posing different requirements for a control system. A continuous process calls for a robust and stable control system that will not fail and cause the shutdown of a production line, whereas the emphasis with a batch process is on having a control system that allows great flexibility in making adjustments to formulas, procedures, and the like. Both kinds of systems need to be managed in available quality history of product, and to be able to execute non-routine operations. With its extensive product portfolio, experienced systems engineers, and global sales and service network, Yokogawa has a solution for every plant process.
Food & Beverage
The food and beverage industry must produce safe, high-quality foods and beverages for consumers. In addition to quality control, the manufacturing processes include many challenges such as managing ingredients, improving efficiency and handling global environmental issues. Yokogawa leverages its decades of technological expertise to help customers build and operate the ideal factory.
In the ever-changing marketplace, refineries are seen not only as crude processing units but also as profit centers. At the same time, there is a keen awareness of the need for safety at such facilities. A total production solution that encompasses planning, scheduling, management, and control is required to achieve long-term goals for profitability, efficiency, and environmental protection. With years of expertise in the automation field, Yokogawa can bring you affordable total solutions for improved operability and a cleaner world.
Related Products & Solutions
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On-line measurements often present extra challenges, especially when routine maintenance is required. The PR10 is ideally suitable for applications where the sensors must be removed without interrupting or shutting down the process. Without any special tools the PR10 can be retracted safely from the process at pressures up to 5 bar (72 psi). Using the PR10 allows us to place any dissolved oxygen sensor that has a PG13.5 connenction into a retractable assembly.
Multi Channel 4-Wire Analyzer FLXA402
The FLEXA™ series analyzers are modular-designed analyzers used for continuous online measurements in industrial installations. They offer single or multi-sensor measurement.
Toroidal/Inductive Conductivity Sensor ISC40
- Model ISC40 toroidal/inductive conductivity sensors
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- Exceeds expectations for conductivity measurement reliability, accuracy, rangeability, price performance
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- Retractable, flow thru, immersion, and direct insertion
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- Process optimization and control
Contact a Yokogawa Expert to learn how we can help you solve your challenges.