pH electrodes and sensors are the sensing portions of a pH measurement. Various installation options including retractable, flow thru, immersion, and direct insertion. Proper pH electrode/sensor selection is critical for optimal measurement results.
The PH20, FU20 and FU24, all-in-one pH and ORP, sensors show how Yokogawa applies the motto "Simple is best" to sensor technology.
The SC25V is a pH sensor in a 12 mm design that includes an integral temperature element and a Liquid earth electrode.
The cation differential pH and ORP sensors were designed for difficult applications where conventional sensors are ineffective. These include measurements such as brine solutions to applications as diverse as electrolysis processes and cheese manufacturing.
The heart of a pH measuring loop is the electrode system. Yokogawa has designed a wide range of electrodes to ensure this heart keeps beating under the most severe conditions.
Achieving accurate and reliable readings using a traditional pH analyzer is challenging, however with the right equipment stable and accurate pure water pH measurements can be accomplished. Yokogawa's specialized bellomatic pH sensor is proven best solution for high purity water applications. For those individuals that do not like the maintenance of refilling sensors, then the FU24 which incorporates the successful patented bellow system in an All-in-one body is the ideal solution.
The PH71/PH72 pH and/or ORP meter is a Compact, Easy-to-use, Drip proof – Ideal for Field Use. Features "One-Touch Calibration" and Temperature Compensation. Laboratory-Grade Intelligent pH Meters – Sized and Priced to Fit in Your Pocket
These sensors feature the latest innovations in pH glass formulation, reference systems, and reference electrolytes. They offer supperior accuracy and stability, even after repeated sterilizations.
The PH87 retractable assembly is suitable for "Hot-Tap" service, allowing for removal from a pressurized process line or vessel without interrupting the flow or draining the tank. The housing assemblies are constructed of chemically resistant titanium sheathes and are used with Model PH97 rugged sensors.
The pneumatic retractable holder EXAtrac RF20 (Extrac 810 and 820) is made for installation of 12mm sensors on tanks or pipelines where the sensor has to be removed without interruptions or shutdowns and in the hash applications where frequent cleaning is of vital importance for a good pH measurement.
Many botech and pharmaceutical applications for determining the purity and quality of the finished product, require the measurement of pH and conductivity in very low volume samples. The PC Flow Block assemblies were specifically designed to achieve accurate pH and conductivity measurements in such low volume applications.
A pH electrode is as good as its maintenance; this is especially true in harsh environments. For industrial applications and particularly for automatic process measurements it is of the greatest importance that the sensitive part of a glass electrode and the diaphragm of a reference electrode are kept clean.
Buffer solutions are needed as an indispensable tool for maintaining an accurate pH measurement. Buffer solutions are used as references points for calibration and adjustment of pH measurements to compensate for aging and deterioration.
Wet scrubbers are used in utilities, paper mills, and chemical plants to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other pollutants from gas streams. Undesirable pollutants are removed by contacting the gases with an aqueous solution or slurry containing a sorbent. The most common sorbents are lime, Ca(OH)2, and limestone, CaCO3.
For control of batch neutralization, a pH measurement coupled with a timer-controlled chemical feed scheme provides very satisfactory results.
This system can be adapted for either acid waste or alkaline waste neutralization.
The term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. Cooling towers are heat-transfer units, used to remove heat from any water-cooled system. The cooled water is then re-circulated (and thus, recycled) back into the system. Since the process water is re-circulated, the mineral concentration increases as a result of the evaporation.
Industry:Refining, Food and Beverage, Power, Oil and Gas, Pulp and Paper, Chemical
The proliferation of microorganisms and the resultant formation of slime is a problem which commonly occurs in aqueous systems. Problematic slime producing microbes may include bacteria, fungi and/or algae. Slime deposits typically occur in many industrial aqueous systems including cooling water systems, pulp and paper mill systems, petroleum operations, clay and pigment slurries, recreational water systems, air washer systems, decorative fountains, food, beverage, and industrial process pasteurizers, sweetwater systems, gas scrubber systems, latex systems, industrial lubricants, cutting fluids, etc.
Industry:Refining, Food and beverage, Power, Oil and Gas, Pulp and Paper, Chemical
There are a number of suppliers of oil and fat products used for edible purposes. These products include, but are not limited to olive oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, lard, shortening, butter, and margarine. The raw materials for these products include animal by-products, fleshy fruits (palm and olive), and oilseeds.
Industry:Food and Beverage
One of the primary applications for high purity water is for boiler feed water. The measurement of pure water pH can be one of the quickest indicators of process contamination in the production or distribution of pure water. Effective chemical treatment of the feed water is vital in maintaining the useful operating life and minimizing maintenance costs of the boiler.
Industry:Power, Pharmaceutical, Common
Process liquid analyzers such as pH meters, conductivity meters, ORP meters, and density meters play an important role at electrolysis plants in the control of concentrations of various process solutions. This requires both precision and stability under harsh conditions that include highly corrosive substances, high temperatures, and many impurities.
Most zinc are produced at hydrometallurgically, where a high-grade zinc product can be obtained and valuable metals mixed in the raw material can be recovered. In the hydrometallurgy, the raw material of zinc concentrate is roasted and then dissolved in sulfuric acid to remove impurities. The process called leaching and pH control of the leachate is important.
The control of the world's water resource is arguably one of the most important issues. Water demand from industry and domestic users is set to rise throughout the industrialized world. Yokogawa has been applying minimized maintenance measurement systems.
Cyanide-bearing wastewater from mining and electroplating facilities and certain types of chemical plants is toxic and must be treated by oxidation with chlorine or chloride to bring the cyanide concentration within regulatory limits.
Industry:Electrical and Electronics
In flue gas desulfurization systems that use magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) slurry, the consumption of the desulfurization agent (Mg(OH)2) is controlled by using online pH analyzers. A great concern in the pH measurement is heavy staining of the pH electrodes by the Mg(OH)2 slurry. To ensure accurate measurement, frequent cleaning of the electrodes with an acid is required, adding to both maintenance workload and cost.
The treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper plants is a serious environmental concern. Yokogawa's submersion holder with an ultrasonic+air-jet cleaner (customized product) can reduce the manual cleaning frequency to just once every one or two months.
Industry:Pulp & Paper
Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. Problems at the wet end (stock preparation) can rarely be corrected downstream. That is why monitoring and controlling pH in pulp stock is critical to the paper making process. Essentially, at every stage in the manufacture of paper, correct pH values play a vital role.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure.
Continuous technology improvement is ongoing in the pulp & paper industry to obtain the best possible performance. The improved plant performance translates to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation.
Wastewater from electroplating facilities and certain types of chemical plants contains toxic forms of hexavalent chromium such as chromate and dichromate. The hexavalent chromium in this wastewater must be reduced before the water can be discharged. This requires a two-step process: hexavalent chromium (CR6) is reduced to trivalent chromium (CR3); and CR3 is precipitated as chromium hydroxide.
Industry:Electrical and Electronics
Sour Water is the wastewater that is produced from atmospheric and vacuum crude columns at refineries. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are typical components in sour water that need to be removed before the water can be reused elsewhere in the plant. Removal of these components is done by sending the sour water from the process to a stripping tower where heat, in the form of steam, is applied.
Power plant boiler houses designed to burn coal or high sulfur oil are required by Federal and State pollution regulations to "scrub" (remove) sulfur dioxide from flue gasses to meet emission limits. SO2 in flue gasses is known to be harmful to the environment, as it is one contributor to the formation of acid rain. pH control is critical for the proper functioning of the scrubber system.
Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid.
Many Ethanol plants running today are using a combination style pH electrode with a non-flowing reference to measure pH in the Mash Slurry transfer line from the Mash slurry mix tank to cook. The Mash is being pumped out of the Mash Slurry tank is at approximately 180 °F and 40 to 60 psig.
ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential) is the measurement, in millivolts, of a solution's capacity for electron transfer (oxidation or reduction). ORP measurement may also be called REDOX for REDuction OXidation. The name reflects that fact that within a chemical reaction reduction and oxidation are complementary; one cannot occur without the other.
The lifetime of a pH sensor has a significant impact on the overall annual costs of a pH measuring loop. Optimizing four key factors will decrease these costs and optimize process control and overall plant efficiency.
Glass blown pH electrodes at Yokogawa Europe.
Are Pure water, Ultrapure water, UPW, or Water for Injection (WFI) important in your process? Would a better understanding of current water treatment equipment technology be useful? Would learning to better identify sources for potential process problem be helpful?
Pure water, Ultrapure water, UPW, Water for Injection (WFI), high-purity water and deionized (DI) are all terms describing basically the same property. They refer to water which has been purified to the highest standards by removing all contaminants such as, organic and inorganic compounds; dissolved and particulate matter; volatile and non-volatile, reactive and inert; hydrophilic and hydrophobic; and dissolved gases. Pure water or conditioned water is used in a variety of processes across various industries; Power Generation, Pharma/Biotech, Semiconductor, and Drinking water are just a few examples. Please join us for a free 45 min webinar with 15 min Q&A section. As our presenter David H. Paul, Inc (DHP), gives an overview of high purity water treatment. What you will learn:
Information about the presenter: Since 1988, David H. Paul, Inc (DHP) has been the world's leader in reverse osmosis and high purity water treatment training. DHP has trained over 18,000 water treatment professionals worldwide. For information on additional High Purity Water Treatment and Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment training please click on the link to DHP's website: www.dhptraining.com
Proper pretreatment is critical for minimizing problems and reducing the need for chemical cleaning. This webinar will teach you the most common pretreatment technologies and why it is important to monitor and maintain them. Join us to learn:
Basic pH/ORP Theory and gain an understanding of:
How to choose the right reference and measuring electrode for your application, which includes:
Each of the previous webinars covered the basics and the monitoring requirements for a high purity water treatment system that included a Reverse Osmosis (RO) treatment step. In this final webinar, we cover the problems that poor RO unit performance can produce in downstream process steps and in the end use water. The webinar series started with topics concerning raw water contaminants and will end with following contaminants through the RO membrane and into downstream treatment steps including Electrodeionization (EDI), mixed-bed ion exchange, 185 nm and 254 nm UV, ozone and more. Join us and learn:
A common use for RO is for purifying water, removing salts and other impurities to improve the color, taste and other properties. It is regularly used for commercial and residential water filtration and is also one of the methods used for desalinization of seawater. RO systems are capable of rejecting bacteria, salts, sugars, proteins, particles, dyes, and other constituents which have a molecular weight of greater than 150-250 Daltons. RO systems are designed for automatic operation and require routine preventative and corrective maintenance. Common problems include membrane fouling and the use of improper flow rates. The result is reduced throughput capacity and shortened runs. What you will learn:
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